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pdf Gunnarsdóttir, R., P. D. Jenssen, P. Erland Jensen, A. Villumsen and R. Kallenborn (2013). A review of wastewater handling in the Arctic with special reference to pharmaceuticals and 105 personal care products (PPCPs) and microbial pollution. Eco. Eng. 50

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Gunnarsdóttir-2013-A review of wastewater hand.pdf

Gunnarsdóttir, R., P. D. Jenssen, P. Erland Jensen, A. Villumsen and R. Kallenborn (2013). A review of wastewater handling in the Arctic with special reference to pharmaceuticals and 105 personal care products (PPCPs) and microbial pollution. Eco. Eng. 50

Treatment of wastewater is often inadequate or completely lacking in Arctic regions. Wastewater con- tains different kinds of substances that can be harmful for the environment and human health, including residues of pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications of chem- icals in the food web are of concern. This can affect fishery that is a significant industry in many Arctic coastal regions. Wastewater from human settlements may also contain antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogens that can cause negative impacts on human health and the environment. In the Arctic, especially, the direct release of untreated sewage may have severe consequences for the receiving environment due to low biological diversity, low ambient temperatures and consequently high vulnerability of the Arctic ecosystem to environmental contaminants.

Bucket toilets are common in remote settlements but are also used in towns. In settlements having inadequate sanitary facilities the risk of contracting diseases, such as hepatitis A, is unacceptably high. Conventional centralized wastewater collection systems and treatment plants are a challenge to build in the Arctic and expensive to operate. Thus alternative methods are needed. Possible solutions are improved dry or low flush toilets with collection of toilet waste at the household level and subsequent centralized treatment by dry composting or anaerobic digestion. Both treatment methods facilitate co-treatment of wastewater along with other organic waste fractions and provide a by-product that is environmentally safe and easy to handle. Combining the above with decentralized greywater treatment will reduce the costs for expensive infrastructure.

pdf Hallanger, I. G. and G. W. Gabrielsen (2018). Plastic in the European Arctic. Norwegian Polar Institute. NPI Kortrapport/Brief Report No. 45. Tromsø: 28.

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Hallanger-2018-Plastic in the European Arctic.pdf

Hallanger, I. G. and G. W. Gabrielsen (2018). Plastic in the European Arctic. Norwegian Polar Institute. NPI Kortrapport/Brief Report No. 45. Tromsø: 28.

Marine plastic litter is a global problem. For the Arctic, which is far from the industrialized and highly populated areas, marine plastic litter is an ongoing and growing problem. The global plastic production reached 322 million tons in 2015, and is growing with ~4% per year. It is therefore likely that the contamination of the Arctic area with plastic litter will increase in the future. Plastic has been observed in all abiotic environments within the European Arctic. The concentration of plastics are comparable or even higher than in more urban and populated areas. There are also indications that the amount of plastic within the European Arctic is increasing. Human settlements within the Arctic also contribute to plastic pollution.

Most studies investigating plastic in Arctic species, have found plastic. OSPAR (Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic) has set an Ecological Quality Objective, that less than 10 % of the monitored fulmar population should not have more than 0.1 gram plastic in their stomachs. In Svalbard, 22.5 % of fulmars have ≥ 0.1 g plastic in their stomachs. This is comparable to observations in Iceland (28%), but lower than other southern locations, such as the North Sea, where in 2007-2011 62% of the fulmar population had ≥ 0.1 g. However, the occurrence of plastic in fulmar stomachs is higher in Svalbard (87.5%) than Iceland (79.3%). In addition, floating plastic litter and plastic objects act as long-distance transport devices for invasive species to the Arctic.

There is a pressing need to address the many gaps in our knowledge of plastic in the Arctic environment and in the Arctic species. The high levels of micro- and small micro plastic found in sea ice and sediments highlight the importance of management action to reduce marine litter globally. We need to better understand how plastic impact our Arctic environment and the species living here.

pdf Halsband, C. and D. Herzke (2017). Marine Plastics and Microplastics. In: AMAP Assessment 2016: Chemicals of Emerging Arctic Concern. Oslo, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP): 269-275.

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Halsband-2017-Marine Plastics and Microplastic.pdf

Halsband, C. and D. Herzke (2017). Marine Plastics and Microplastics. In: AMAP Assessment 2016: Chemicals of Emerging Arctic Concern. Oslo, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP): 269-275.

This section reviews the state of knowledge to late-2015 concerning microplastic in the Arctic. Marine litter and especially plastic debris in the oceans has emerged as a major environmental concern worldwide and is recognized as a threat to marine ecosystems due to the vast amounts involved (Jambeck et al., 2015). Plastics are man-made materials comprising a wide range of organic polymers. They are semi- persistent and known to break down from macroplastic particles (>5 mm in size) to smaller plastic particles through exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light and physical abrasion, but total degradation is slow (Gewert et al., 2015). Most of the plastic material floating in the world’s oceans is microplastic debris (<5 mm) (Cózar et al., 2014; Law et al., 2014b). Plastics are released into the environment during industrial activities such as commercial fishing, use of plastic abrasives, and spillage of plastic pellets, but also from domestic applications such as washing of plastic microfiber clothes, use of personal care products containing microplastics (e.g. toothpaste and exfoliators) and municipal wastewater.

pdf Hermansen, O. and M. Troell (2012). Aquaculture in the Arctic - a review. Nofima. Nofima rapportserie No. 36/2012. Tromsø: 32.

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Hermansen-2012-Aquaculture in the Arctic - a r.pdf

Hermansen, O. and M. Troell (2012). Aquaculture in the Arctic - a review. Nofima. Nofima rapportserie No. 36/2012. Tromsø: 32.

Aquaculture in the Arctic region contributes with 2% of global production. This may seem small, but is of same magnitude as EUs total aquaculture production. Norway is by far the dominant producer in the Arctic. There is some activity in Iceland and Russia, while production in Sweden and Finland is very small. In the other Arctic countries we have not noted any activity. Production mainly constitutes of salmonids with additional limited production of a few other species.

There is considerable uncertainty associated with the projections of future climate. This is also true for the Arctic region. Models predict increase in water temperature within the range of 0.5 to 2.5 degrees. Detailed impact studies for aquaculture are scarce, and even fewer analyse this from an Arctic perspective. The direct effects from a temperature change on the aquaculture industry can to some extent be modelled with fairly good accuracy, including both the effects on fish growth as well as how a whole industry may be affected. These models show how production will change and also socio-economic consequences. From these models it becomes clear that aquaculture in the Arctic will see positive effects from warming water temperatures. Other direct effects such as from storm frequencies and intensities can be relatively well anticipated, but the uncertainty regarding how these parameters will change is high.

Other indirect effects such as diseases and pest species, freshwater runoff etc are very hard to predict, aggravating the uncertainty related to climate change. What is certain is that the environmental conditions will change and that the industry will have to adapt to these changes. For enabling the industry to do so there is a need to look over existing regulatory frameworks and start a multi-stakeholder dialogue to find out where and how aquaculture operations can move or change their operations.

pdf Holmes, R. M., J. W. McClelland, B. J. Peterson, S. E. Tank, E. Bulygina, T. I. Eglinton, V. V. Gordeev, T. Y. Gurtovaya, P. A. Raymond, D. J. Repeta, R. Staples, R. G. Striegl, A. V. Zhulidov and S. A. Zimov (2011). Seasonal and Annual Fluxes of Nutrient

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Holmes-2011-Seasonal and Annual Fluxes of Nutr.pdf

Holmes, R. M., J. W. McClelland, B. J. Peterson, S. E. Tank, E. Bulygina, T. I. Eglinton, V. V. Gordeev, T. Y. Gurtovaya, P. A. Raymond, D. J. Repeta, R. Staples, R. G. Striegl, A. V. Zhulidov and S. A. Zimov (2011). Seasonal and Annual Fluxes of Nutrient

River inputs of nutrients and organic matter impact the biogeochemistry of arctic estuaries and the Arctic Ocean as a whole, yet there is considerable uncertainty about the magnitude of fluvial fluxes at the pan-Arctic scale. Samples from the six largest arctic rivers, with a combined watershed area of 11.3×106 km2, have revealed strong seasonal variations in constituent concentrations and fluxes within rivers as well as large differences among the rivers. Specifically, we investigate fluxes of dissolved organic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen, total dissolved phospho- rus, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, nitrate, and silica. This is the first time that seasonal and annual constituent fluxes have been determined using consistent sampling and analytical methods at the pan-Arctic scale and consequently provide the best available estimates for constituent flux from land to the Arctic Ocean and surrounding seas. Given the large inputs of river water to the relatively small Arctic Ocean and the dramatic impacts that climate change is having in the Arctic, it is particularly urgent that we establish the contemporary river fluxes so that we will be able to detect future changes and evaluate the impact of the changes on the biogeochemistry of the receiving coastal and ocean systems.

pdf Humborstad, O.-B., S. Løkkeborg, N.-R. Hareide and D. M. Furevik (2003). Catches of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) in deepwater ghost-fishing gillnets on the Norwegian continental slope. Fisheries Research, 64(2-3): 163-170

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Humborstad-2003-Catches of Greenland halibut (.pdf

Humborstad, O.-B., S. Løkkeborg, N.-R. Hareide and D. M. Furevik (2003). Catches of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) in deepwater ghost-fishing gillnets on the Norwegian continental slope. Fisheries Research, 64(2-3): 163-170

Fishing gear may continue to fish after it has been lost. Large catches have been observed during cruises to retrieve lost gillnets in Norwegian waters, especially in the fishery for Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides). The Norwegian Greenland halibut is overexploited, and there is serious concern about the effect of lost nets on this stock. Catches in deliberately lost gillnets were studied in the fishery for Greenland halibut off the coast of mid-Norway in July 2000 and June 2001. Gillnet fleets were deployed at depths of between 537 and 851 m, and the soak time ranged from 1 to 68 days. Most of the catch consisted of the target species, and the proportions of different species did not change with soak time. All individuals caught were categorized in terms of seven condition states. A gradual shift from fresh to decomposed individuals over time was evident. The catching efficiency of gillnets decreased with soak time, presumably due to the weight of the catch causing the headline height to decrease, and after 45 days was only about 20–30% of that of nets used in the commercial fishery. Catch rates were estimated after stabilization at 67–100 and 28–43 kg per day per gillnet fleet in 2000 and 2001, respectively. The results indicated that gillnets lost in this area continue to fish for long periods of time. Annual losses of nets need to be quantified in order to estimate the effects of ghost fishing on stock levels, a figure that is currently lacking.

pdf IMO 1972 Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matters

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IMO-1972-Convention on the Prevention of Marin.pdf

IMO 1972 Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matters
No Abstract Available

pdf IMO 1988 Annex V of MARPOL Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships

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IMO-1988-Annex V of MARPOL_ Regulations for th.pdf

IMO 1988 Annex V of MARPOL Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships
No Abstract Available

pdf IMO 1996 Protocol to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, 1972

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IMO-1996-Protocol to the Convention on the Pre.pdf

IMO 1996 Protocol to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, 1972
No Abstract Available

pdf IMO 2017 International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (Polar Code)

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IMO-2017-International Code for Ships Operatin.pdf

IMO 2017 International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (Polar Code)
No Abstract Available

pdf IMO 2017 Resolution MEPC 295(71) 2017 Guidelines for the implementation of MARPOL Annex V

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IMO-2017-Resolution MEPC.295(71)_ 2017 Guideli.pdf

IMO 2017 Resolution MEPC 295(71) 2017 Guidelines for the implementation of MARPOL Annex V
No Abstract Available

pdf Jambeck, J. R., R. Geyer, C. Wilcox, T. R. Siegler, M. Perryman, A. Andrady, R. Narayan and K. L. Law (2015). Marine pollution. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean. Science, 347(6223): 768-771

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Jambeck-2015-Marine pollution. Plastic waste i.pdf

Jambeck, J. R., R. Geyer, C. Wilcox, T. R. Siegler, M. Perryman, A. Andrady, R. Narayan and K. L. Law (2015). Marine pollution. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean. Science, 347(6223): 768-771

Plastic debris in the marine environment is widely documented, but the quantity of plastic entering the ocean from waste generated on land is unknown. By linking worldwide
data on solid waste, population density, and economic status, we estimated the mass of land-based plastic waste entering the ocean. We calculate that 275 million metric tons (MT) of plastic waste was generated in 192 coastal countries in 2010, with 4.8 to 12.7 million MT entering the ocean. Population size and the quality of waste management systems largely determine which countries contribute the greatest mass of uncaptured waste available to become plastic marine debris. Without waste management infrastructure improvements, the cumulative quantity of plastic waste available to enter the ocean from land is predicted to increase by an order of magnitude by 2025.

pdf Kirkfeldt, T. S. (2016). Marine Litter in Greenland. Master's Thesis, Aalborg University, Denmark.

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Kirkfeldt-2016-Marine Litter in Greenland.pdf

Kirkfeldt, T. S. (2016). Marine Litter in Greenland. Master's Thesis, Aalborg University, Denmark.
No Abstract Available

pdf Kiyota, M. and N. Baba (2001). Entanglement in marine debris among adult female northern fur seals at St.Paul Island, Alaska in 1991-1999. Bulletin of Natural Resources Institute of Far Seas and Fisheries(38): 13-80.

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Kiyota-2001-Entanglement in marine debris amon.pdf

Kiyota, M. and N. Baba (2001). Entanglement in marine debris among adult female northern fur seals at St.Paul Island, Alaska in 1991-1999. Bulletin of Natural Resources Institute of Far Seas and Fisheries(38): 13-80.
Sighting surveys of adult female northern fur seals were conducted at St. Paul Island, Alaska in 1991-1999 to monitor the incidence of entanglement in marine debris. Based on the counts of 244,225 individuals, average incidence of entangled femles over the entire survey years was estimated at 0.013% and that of females with scars caused by previous entaglement was 0.029%. Trawl nets, monofilament gillnets, polypropylene packing bands, twines and lines and a plastic frame of a laundry detergent box were observed entangled in female seals. Trawl nets entanglement was higher in 1991 and 1994, but was stabilized at around 0.01% after that. Composition of beach debris indicated recent decrease in trawl nets and packing bands and increase in ropes and lines, possibly related to the trends in commercial fisheries around the breeding island.

pdf Koelmans, A. A., E. Besseling and E. M. Foekema (2014). Leaching of plastic additives to marine organisms. Environ Pollut, 187: 49-54

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Koelmans-2014-Leaching of plastic additives to.pdf

Koelmans, A. A., E. Besseling and E. M. Foekema (2014). Leaching of plastic additives to marine organisms. Environ Pollut, 187: 49-54

It is often assumed that ingestion of microplastics by aquatic species leads to increased exposure to plastic additives. However, experimental data or model based evidence is lacking. Here we assess the potential of leaching of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the intestinal tracts of Arenicola marina (lugworm) and Gadus morhua (North Sea cod). We use a biodynamic model that allows calcu- lations of the relative contribution of plastic ingestion to total exposure of aquatic species to chemicals residing in the ingested plastic. Uncertainty in the most crucial parameters is accounted for by proba- bilistic modeling. Our conservative analysis shows that plastic ingestion by the lugworm yields NP and BPA concentrations that stay below the lower ends of global NP and BPA concentration ranges, and therefore are not likely to constitute a relevant exposure pathway. For cod, plastic ingestion appears to be a negligible pathway for exposure to NP and BPA.

pdf Kroodsma, D. A., J. Mayorga, T. Hochberg, N. A. Miller, K. Boerder, F. Ferretti, A. Wilson, B. Bergman, T. D. White, B. A. Block, P. Woods, B. Sullivan, C. Costello and B. Worm (2018). Tracking the global footprint of fisheries. Science, 359(6378): 904-9

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Kroodsma-2018-Tracking the global footprint of.pdf

Kroodsma, D. A., J. Mayorga, T. Hochberg, N. A. Miller, K. Boerder, F. Ferretti, A. Wilson, B. Bergman, T. D. White, B. A. Block, P. Woods, B. Sullivan, C. Costello and B. Worm (2018). Tracking the global footprint of fisheries. Science, 359(6378): 904-9

Although fishing is one of the most widespread activities by which humans harvest natural resources, its global footprint is poorly understood and has never been directly quantified. We processed 22 billion automatic identification system messages and tracked >70,000 industrial fishing vessels from 2012 to 2016, creating a global dynamic footprint of fishing effort with spatial and temporal resolution two to three orders of magnitude higher than for previous data sets. Our data show that industrial fishing occurs in >55% of ocean area and has a spatial extent more than four times that of agriculture. We find that global patterns of fishing have surprisingly low sensitivity to short-term economic and environmental variation and a strong response to cultural and political events such as holidays and closures.

pdf Kühn, S., E. L. Bravo Rebolledo and J. A. van Franeker (2015). Deleterious Effects of Litter on Marine Life. In: Bergmann M., Gutow L., Klages M. (eds) Marine Anthropogenic Litter, Springer, Cham: 75-116.

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Kühn-2015-Deleterious Effects of Litter on Mar.pdf

Kühn, S., E. L. Bravo Rebolledo and J. A. van Franeker (2015). Deleterious Effects of Litter on Marine Life. In: Bergmann M., Gutow L., Klages M. (eds) Marine Anthropogenic Litter, Springer, Cham: 75-116.

In this review we report new findings concerning interaction between marine debris and wildlife. Deleterious effects and consequences of entangle- ment, consumption and smothering are highlighted and discussed. The number of species known to have been affected by either entanglement or ingestion of plas- tic debris has doubled since 1997, from 267 to 557 species among all groups of wildlife. For marine turtles the number of affected species increased from 86 to 100 % (now 7 of 7 species), for marine mammals from 43 to 66 % (now 81 of 123 species) and for seabirds from 44 to 50 % of species (now 203 of 406 spe- cies). Strong increases in records were also listed for fish and invertebrates, groups that were previously not considered in detail. In future records of interac- tions between marine debris and wildlife we recommend to focus on standardized data on frequency of occurrence and quantities of debris ingested. In combination with dedicated impact studies in the wild or experiments, this will allow more detailed assessments of the deleterious effects of marine debris on individuals and populations.

pdf Kühn, S., F. L. Schaafsma, B. van Werven, H. Flores, M. Bergmann, M. Egelkraut-Holtus, M. B. Tekman and J. A. van Franeker (2018). Plastic ingestion by juvenile polar cod (Boreogadus saida) in the Arctic Ocean. Polar Biology

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Kühn-2018-Plastic ingestion by juvenile polar.pdf

Kühn, S., F. L. Schaafsma, B. van Werven, H. Flores, M. Bergmann, M. Egelkraut-Holtus, M. B. Tekman and J. A. van Franeker (2018). Plastic ingestion by juvenile polar cod (Boreogadus saida) in the Arctic Ocean. Polar Biology

One of the recently recognised stressors in Arctic ecosystems concerns plastic litter. In this study, juvenile polar cod (Bore- ogadus saida) were investigated for the presence of plastics in their stomachs. Polar cod is considered a key species in the Arctic ecosystem. The fish were collected both directly from underneath the sea ice in the Eurasian Basin and in open waters around Svalbard. We analysed the stomachs of 72 individuals under a stereo microscope. Two stomachs contained non- fibrous microplastic particles. According to μFTIR analysis, the particles consisted of epoxy resin and a mix of Kaolin with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Fibrous objects were excluded from this analysis to avoid bias due to contamination with airborne micro-fibres. A systematic investigation of the risk for secondary micro-fibre contamination during analytical pro- cedures showed that precautionary measures in all procedural steps are critical. Based on the two non-fibrous objects found in polar cod stomachs, our results show that ingestion of microplastic particles by this ecologically important fish species is possible. With increasing human activity, plastic ingestion may act as an increasing stressor on polar cod in combination with ocean warming and sea-ice decline in peripheral regions of the Arctic Ocean. To fully assess the significance of this stressor and its spatial and temporal variability, future studies must apply a rigorous approach to avoid secondary pollution.

pdf Kuzin, A. E. (1990). A Study of the Effects of Commercial fishing debris on Callorhinus ursinus from breeding islands in the western Pacific. Second International Conference on Marine Debris, Honolulu.

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Kuzin-1990-A Study of the Effects of Commercia.PDF

Kuzin, A. E. (1990). A Study of the Effects of Commercial fishing debris on Callorhinus ursinus from breeding islands in the western Pacific. Second International Conference on Marine Debris, Honolulu.

In this paper, data and analyses are presented concerning the incidence of entanglement among the northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus, from the breeding islands of the western Pacific. This work was undertaken to further explore the degree to which waste disposed from fishing vessels is a source of mortality for this species. Based on the available data, estimates of the minimum proportion of various age and sex groups entangled within the population are produced. Historical data show that injuries caused by fishing nets shreds (66%), ropes (20%), fishing line (8%), and packing bands and collars made of other materials (6%) are contributing to the mortality of northern fur seals. The incidence of entanglement, and therefore the resulting mortality among the Tyuleniy (Robben) Island population, is higher than for the population on the Komandorskie (Commander) Islands. The higher incidence of entanglement on Robben Island may be related to declines in the population on that island in comparison to the relative stability on the Com- mander Islands, where the incidence of entanglement is less.