Folder Desktop Study List of References

Documents

pdf Lambertsen, R. H. and B. A. Kohn (1987). Unusual Multisystemic Pathology in a Sperm Whale Bull. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 23(3): 510-514

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Lambertsen-1987-Unusual Multisystemic Patholog.pdf

Lambertsen, R. H. and B. A. Kohn (1987). Unusual Multisystemic Pathology in a Sperm Whale Bull. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 23(3): 510-514
No Abstract Available
 
 

pdf Lebreton, L. C. M., J. van der Zwet, J. W. Damsteeg, B. Slat, A. Andrady and J. Reisser (2017). River plastic emissions to the world's oceans. Nat Commun, 8: 15611

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Lebreton-2017-River plastic emissions to the w.pdf

Lebreton, L. C. M., J. van der Zwet, J. W. Damsteeg, B. Slat, A. Andrady and J. Reisser (2017). River plastic emissions to the world's oceans. Nat Commun, 8: 15611

Plastics in the marine environment have become a major concern because of their persistence at sea, and adverse consequences to marine life and potentially human health. Implementing mitigation strategies requires an understanding and quantification of marine plastic sources, taking spatial and temporal variability into account. Here we present a global model of plastic inputs from rivers into oceans based on waste management, population density and hydrological information. Our model is calibrated against measurements available in the literature. We estimate that between 1.15 and 2.41 million tonnes of plastic waste currently enters the ocean every year from rivers, with over 74% of emissions occurring between May and October. The top 20 polluting rivers, mostly located in Asia, account for 67% of the global total. The findings of this study provide baseline data for ocean plastic mass balance exercises, and assist in prioritizing future plastic debris monitoring and mitigation strategies.

pdf Lebreton, L. C., S. D. Greer and J. C. Borrero (2012). Numerical modelling of floating debris in the world's oceans. Mar Pollut Bull, 64(3): 653-661

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Lebreton-2012-Numerical modelling of floating.pdf

Lebreton, L. C., S. D. Greer and J. C. Borrero (2012). Numerical modelling of floating debris in the world's oceans. Mar Pollut Bull, 64(3): 653-661

A global ocean circulation model is coupled to a Lagrangian particle tracking model to simulate 30 years of input, transport and accumulation of floating debris in the world ocean. Using both terrestrial and mar- itime inputs, the modelling results clearly show the formation of five accumulation zones in the subtrop- ical latitudes of the major ocean basins. The relative size and concentration of each clearly illustrate the dominance of the accumulation zones in the northern hemisphere, while smaller seas surrounded by densely populated areas are also shown to have a high concentration of floating debris. We also deter- mine the relative contribution of different source regions to the total amount of material in a particular accumulation zone. This study provides a framework for describing the transport, distribution and accu- mulation of floating marine debris and can be continuously updated and adapted to assess scenarios reflecting changes in the production and disposal of plastic worldwide.

pdf Leclerc, L.-M. E., C. Lydersen, T. Haug, L. Bachmann, A. T. Fisk and K. M. Kovacs (2012). A missing piece in the Arctic food web puzzle? Stomach contents of Greenland sharks sampled in Svalbard, Norway. Polar Biology, 35(8): 1197-1208

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Leclerc-2012-A missing piece in the Arctic foo.pdf

Leclerc, L.-M. E., C. Lydersen, T. Haug, L. Bachmann, A. T. Fisk and K. M. Kovacs (2012). A missing piece in the Arctic food web puzzle? Stomach contents of Greenland sharks sampled in Svalbard, Norway. Polar Biology, 35(8): 1197-1208

Harbour seals in Svalbard have short longevity, despite being protected from human hunting and having limited terrestrial predation at their haulout sites, low contaminant burdens and no fishery by-catch issues. This led us to explore the diet of Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus) in this region as a potential seal predator. We examined gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) from 45 Greenland sharks in this study. These sharks ranged from 229 to 381 cm in fork length and 136–700 kg in body mass; all were sexually immature. Seal and whale tissues were found in 36.4 and 18.2%, respectively, of the GITs that had contents (n = 33). Based on genetic analyses, the dominant seal prey species was the ringed seal (Pusa hispida); bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) tissues were each found in a single shark. The sharks had eaten ringed seal pups and adults based on the presence of lanugo-covered prey (pups) and age determinations based on growth rings on claws (B1 year and adults). All of the whale tissue was from minke whale (Balenoptera acutorostrata) offal, from ani- mals that had been harvested in the whale fishery near Svalbard. Fish dominated the sharks’ diet, with Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Atlantic wolffish (Anarhichas lupus) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) being the most important fish species. Circumstantial evidence suggests that these sharks actively prey on seals and fishes, in addition to eating carrion such as the whale tissue. Our study suggests that Greenland sharks may play a significant predatory role in Arctic food webs.

pdf Lohmann, R. (2017). Microplastics are not important for the cycling and bioaccumulation of organic pollutants in the oceans-but should microplastics be considered POPs themselves? Integr Environ Assess Manag, 13(3): 460-465

Tagged in Microplastics 78 downloads

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Lohmann-2017-Microplastics are not important f.pdf

Lohmann, R. (2017). Microplastics are not important for the cycling and bioaccumulation of organic pollutants in the oceans-but should microplastics be considered POPs themselves? Integr Environ Assess Manag, 13(3): 460-465

The role of microplastic particles in the cycling and bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is discussed. Five common concepts, sometimes misconceptions, about the role of microplastics are reviewed. While there is ample evidence that microplastics accumulate high concentrations of POPs, this does not result in microplastics being important for the global dispersion of POPs. Similarly, there is scant evidence that microplastics are an important transfer vector of POPs into animals, but possibly for plastic additives (flame retardants). Last, listing microplastics as POPs could help reduce their environmental impact.

pdf Lusher, A. L., C. O'Donnell, R. Officer and I. O'Connor (2016). Microplastic interactions with North Atlantic mesopelagic fish. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil, 73(4): 1214-1225

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Lusher-2016-Microplastic interactions with Nor.pdf

Lusher, A. L., C. O'Donnell, R. Officer and I. O'Connor (2016). Microplastic interactions with North Atlantic mesopelagic fish. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil, 73(4): 1214-1225

Microplastics in the marine environment are well documented, and interactions with marine biota have been described worldwide. However, inter- actions with vertically migrating fish are poorly understood. The diel vertical migration of mesopelagic fish represents one, if not the largest, vertical migration of biomass on the planet, and is thus an important link between the euphotic zone, transporting carbon and other nutrients to global deep sea communities. Knowledge of how mesopelagic fish interact and distribute plastic as a marine contaminant is required as these populations have been identified as a potential global industrial fishery for fishmeal production. Ingestion of microplastic by mesopelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic was studied. Approximately 11% of the 761 fish examined had microplastics present in their digestive tracts. No clear difference in ingestion frequency was identified between species, location, migration behaviour, or time of capture. While ingesting microplastic may not negatively impact individual mesopelagic fish, the movement of mesopelagic fish from the euphotic zone to deeper waters could mediate transfer of micro- plastics to otherwise unexposed species and regions of the world’s oceans.

pdf Magnusson, K., H. Jörundsdóttir, F. Norén, H. Lloyd, J. Talvitie and O. Setälä (2016). Microlitter in sewage treatment systems : A Nordic perspective on waste water treatment plants as pathways for microscopic anthropogenic particles to marine systems. N

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Magnusson-2016-Microlitter in Sewage Treatment.pdf

Magnusson, K., H. Jörundsdóttir, F. Norén, H. Lloyd, J. Talvitie and O. Setälä (2016). Microlitter in sewage treatment systems : A Nordic perspective on waste water treatment plants as pathways for microscopic anthropogenic particles to marine systems. N

This report describes the results of a two year project called “Microlitter in sewage treatment systems – A Nordic perspective on waste water treatment plants as pathways for microscopic anthropogenic particles to marine systems” funded by the Marine Group (HAV) under the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2014–2015.

The aim of the project was to investigate the significance of effluent water from sewage treatment plants (STPs) as gateway for microliter and other microscopic anthropogenic particles (MAPs) to the marine and aquatic environment. Further, to investigate the occurrence of these par- ticles both in the biotic and abiotic compartment of the receptor. STPs from Sweden, Finland and Iceland with different sewage treatment meth- ods were included in the study. Different SPT treatments were chosen to investigate the importance of sewage treatments on microparticle reten- tion in STPs. The report describes the methods used, results from the STP investigation and the amount of particles found in seawater, sediment and marine organisms in the receptor. Further, the report suggests a harmo- nized definition on particle shape for analyses which is beneficial for the international scientific community in order to facilitate comparison be- tween studies.

pdf Martin, A. R. and M. R. Clarke (1986). The Diet of Sperm Whales (Physeter Macrocephalus) Captured Between Iceland and Greenland. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 66(04)

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Martin-1986-The Diet of Sperm Whales (Physeter.pdf

Martin, A. R. and M. R. Clarke (1986). The Diet of Sperm Whales (Physeter Macrocephalus) Captured Between Iceland and Greenland. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 66(04)

The stomach contents of 221 sperm whales were examined at the Icelandic whaling station between 1977 and 1981. Evidence of at least eight species offishand 22 species of cephalopod was found, together with an assortment of foreign bodies including rock fragments and fishing nets. Fish remains were found in 87% and cephalopods in 68% of the sperm whale stomachs in this area, but quantification of dietary input is complicated by differential rates of digestion and variation in the retention of indigestible remains in the stomach. Prey species are benthic or pelagic in habit and are caught by the whale in waters from 400 m to at least 1200 m in depth. One fish, the lumpsucker Cyclopterus lumpus, forms a major part of the diet. Ninety-four per cent of cephalopods are oceanic and neutrally buoyant and 84 % of these are ammoniacal. Cranchiids contribute 57 % by number and an estimated 25 % of the weight, and histioteuthids 26 % by number and 38 % of the weight of cephalopods eaten. Three species offish and two of cephalopod have not been previously recorded in sperm whale diets. Comparison with an earlier study shows that the diet is essentially stable over a 14-year period.

pdf Moskeland, T., H. Knutsen, H. P. Arp, Ø. Lilleeng and A. Pettersen (2018). Microplastics in sediments on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. DNV GL No. 2018-0050, rev. 01. Høvik: 86.

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Moskeland-2018-Microplastics in sediments on t.pdf

Moskeland, T., H. Knutsen, H. P. Arp, Ø. Lilleeng and A. Pettersen (2018). Microplastics in sediments on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. DNV GL No. 2018-0050, rev. 01. Høvik: 86.

This study presents sampling and analysis of sediments for microplastics. The sampling area covers large scale geographical areas on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS). The samples have been collected as an extra task during the regional offshore sediment monitoring on the NCS on behalf of the Oil & Gas industry. This study had therefore not been initiated without the good will from Oil & Gas operators, especially Statoil and ConocoPhillips Norway, which allowed use of some additional time during field work to take these samples.

The Norwegian Environment Agency saw this as a good opportunity to acquire knowledge of microplastic abundances from the NCS and therefore funded the project.

The Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) has put in own effort, assisted through the Skattefunn system (Project 266408), the projects FANTOM (RCN, 231736/F20) and JPI Oceans WEATHER-MIC (RCN, Project Grant 257433/E40), for the development of the analytical protocols and execution of the analysis and reporting. Through a relatively short period they have managed to deliver all results. A special thanks to Prof. Hans Peter Arp, Heidi Knutsen, Emma Jane Wade and Arne Petersen for the cooperation and all the work they have put in. Also, a special thanks to Øyvind Lilleeng at NMBU (Norwegian University of Life Sciences) whose substantial contribution to this report was done in partial fulfilment of the Masters Project tentatively entitled “The presence of microplastics on the Norwegian Continental shelf and coast of Havana”.

pdf Neilson, J. L., J. M. Straley, C. M. Gabriele and S. Hills (2009). Non-lethal entanglement of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in fishing gear in northern Southeast Alaska. Journal of Biogeography, 36(3): 452-464

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Neilson-2009-Non-lethal entanglement of humpba.pdf

Neilson, J. L., J. M. Straley, C. M. Gabriele and S. Hills (2009). Non-lethal entanglement of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in fishing gear in northern Southeast Alaska. Journal of Biogeography, 36(3): 452-464

Entanglement in fishing gear is recognized as a potentially significant source of serious injury and mortality for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in some parts of their range. In recent years, the number of humpback whales reported to have been entangled in Alaska has increased. In 2003–04 we quantified the prevalence of non-lethal entanglements of humpback whales in northern Southeast Alaska (SEAK) with the ultimate goal of informing management discussions of the entanglement issue for the Central North Pacific stock of humpback whales.

pdf Newman, S., E. Watkins, A. Farmer, P. Brink and J.-P. Schweitzer (2015). The Economics of Marine Litter. In: Bergmann M., Gutow L., Klages M. (eds) Marine Anthropogenic Litter, Springer, Cham: 367-394.

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Newman-2015-The Economics of Marine Litter.pdf

Newman, S., E. Watkins, A. Farmer, P. Brink and J.-P. Schweitzer (2015). The Economics of Marine Litter. In: Bergmann M., Gutow L., Klages M. (eds) Marine Anthropogenic Litter, Springer, Cham: 367-394.

This chapter aims to provide an overview of research into quantifying the economic impacts of marine litter. From an environmental economics perspec- tive it introduces the difficulties in measuring the economic costs of marine litter; reviews those sectors where these costs are notable; and considers policy instru- ments, which can reduce these costs. Marine litter is underpinned by dynamic and complex processes, the drivers and impacts of which are multi-scalar, trans- boundary, and play out in both marine and terrestrial environments. These impacts include economic costs to expenditure, welfare and lost revenue. In most cases, these are not borne by the producers or the polluters. In industries such as fisher- ies and tourism the costs of marine litter are beginning to be quantified and are considerable. In other areas such as impacts on human health, or more intangible costs related to reduced ecosystem services, more research is evidently needed. As the costs of marine litter are most often used to cover removing debris or recov- ering from the damage which they have caused, this expenditure represents treat- ment rather than cure, and although probably cheaper than inaction do not present a strategy for cost reduction. Economic instruments, such as taxes and charges addressing the drivers of waste, for instance those being developed for plastic bags, could be used to reduce the production of marine litter and minimise its impacts. In any case, there remain big gaps in our understanding of the harm caused by marine litter, which presents difficulties when attempting to both quantify its economic costs, and develop effective and efficient instruments to reduce them.

pdf Nielsen, J., R. B. Hedeholm, M. Simon and J. F. Steffensen (2013). Distribution and feeding ecology of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) in Greenland waters. Polar Biology, 37(1): 37-46

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Nielsen-2013-Distribution and feeding ecology.pdf

Nielsen, J., R. B. Hedeholm, M. Simon and J. F. Steffensen (2013). Distribution and feeding ecology of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) in Greenland waters. Polar Biology, 37(1): 37-46

Greenland sharks are widely distributed and most likely a highly abundant predator in arctic waters. Greenland sharks have previously been considered scav- engers, but recent studies suggest that Greenland sharks also predate on live prey. In this study, distribution and feeding ecology in Greenland waters were investigated. Based on data from 25 years of surveys, Greenland sharks were usually caught at 400–700 m but were found at all depths between 100 and 1,200 m. Based on examination of stomachs from 30 Greenland sharks (total length of 258–460 cm), the most important prey items were Atlantic cod (65.6 % IRI), harp seal (9.9 % IRI), skates (5.2 % IRI) and wolffish (4.4 % IRI), but large geographical variations were observed. Prey composition and qualitative observa- tions support the hypothesis of active predation. Consistent with other studies, the results of this work support the notion that the Greenland shark is an apex predator with the potential to influence trophic dynamics in the Arctic.

pdf Nordic Council (2017). Nordic Programme to Reduce the Environmental Impact of Plastic

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Nordic Council-2017-Nordic programme to reduce.pdf

Nordic Council (2017). Nordic Programme to Reduce the Environmental Impact of Plastic
No Abstract Available

pdf OSPAR (2017a). CEMP Guidelines for monitoring marine litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines (beach litter) (OSPAR Agreement 2017-05): OSPAR Commission.

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OSPAR Commissio-2017-CEMP Guidelines for monit.pdf

OSPAR (2017a). CEMP Guidelines for monitoring marine litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines (beach litter) (OSPAR Agreement 2017-05): OSPAR Commission.

The reduction of pollution of the marine environment with litter is one of the significant environmental challenges facing society today.

Measures to reduce the input of marine litter and measures to remove litter from the marine environment are presently being implemented through activities at the OSPAR level (OSPAR Regional Action Plan) and on a national scale via the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). To measure the effectiveness of these activities in reducing marine litter pollution and to assess if a Good Environmental Status (GES) is being achieved, indicators have been developed. One of these indicators is the amount of marine litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines, referred to as beach litter. The indicator reflects changes in inputs of litter to the marine environment and is an indicator of the type and magnitude of litter pollution on the coastline and in adjacent marine waters.

The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines for a monitoring and assessment programme that allows effective detection of spatial differences and temporal changes in the litter encountered on beach litter monitoring sites. This litter can originate from the sea, through deliberate or accidental losses from vessels (including cargos and waste), and be transported to and deposited on the coast from the sea by winds and water currents. It can also be directly deposited on the coast by humans, e.g. tourists, fishermen, fly-tipping. Litter can also be deposited further inland on riverbanks, directly into rivers, on streets and in the countryside and consequently be transported by rivers and wind into the marine environment. In addition, sewage works may discharge litter items directly or indirectly, via rivers and sewage outlets into the sea. Marine litter (marine debris) is thus any persistent, manufactured or processed solid material discarded, disposed of, abandoned or lost in the marine and coastal environment.

pdf OSPAR (2017b). CEMP Guidelines on Litter on the Seafloor (OSPAR Agreement 2017-06): OSPAR Commission.

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OSPAR Commissio-2017-CEMP Guidelines on Litter.pdf

OSPAR (2017b). CEMP Guidelines on Litter on the Seafloor (OSPAR Agreement 2017-06): OSPAR Commission.

Marine litter floats, sinks or gets cast on beaches. It is estimated that a large amount of the litter eventually sinks to the sea floor. Benthic or seafloor marine litter consists of similar items as those found on beaches and is dominated by plastic. Benthic marine litter data can be generated based on trawling surveys. Comparable classification methods as those applied to beach litter can be used to categorise and count litter items from the seafloor. This seafloor litter data can be used to assess types and trends in the distribution of seafloor litter. The following document will firstly introduce how to monitor marine litter during fisheries surveys and secondly present how this data can be evaluated.

pdf OSPAR Commission (2008). Background document for the EcoQO on plastic particles in stomachs of seabirds.

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OSPAR Commissio-2008-Background document for t.pdf

OSPAR Commission (2008). Background document for the EcoQO on plastic particles in stomachs of seabirds.

This background document reports on the development of an ecological quality objective (EcoQO) for plastic particles in stomachs of seabirds. This work responds to the agreement at the 5th North Sea Conference in 2002 that an EcoQO should be developed and applied in the framework of OSPAR for the ecological quality element on plastic particles in seabird stomachs.

The occurrence of plastics (and other man-made types of litter) in the marine environment is due solely to human activity and can therefore be controlled by human management. Marine litter, especially plastics, causes ecological damage to a wide range of marine organisms, including at least marine mammals, birds, turtles and fish as a result of the entanglement with, or ingestion of, plastic. The Northern Fulmar is a particularly convenient species to measure plastic pollution by stomach content analysis. Like the whole group of 'tubenosed' seabirds (the albatrosses and petrels), it frequently ingests plastic litter. The Fulmar is particularly abundant in the North Sea, forages exclusively at sea (unlike e.g. gulls), retains slowly digesting materials in the stomach, and thereby 'integrates' litter pollution levels encountered at sea. Sources of plastic litter in the North Sea area are: i) ship's garbage and operational or cargo-related wastes; ii) lost and discarded fisheries materials from vessels and mariculture; iii) land-based wastes from coastal or riverine disposal; and iv) recreational littering.

In 2005, following an initial phase of work in collaboration with ICES, the OSPAR report on the North Sea Pilot Project concluded on the formulation for an EcoQO based upon the number of plastic particles found in the stomachs of fulmars. However, at the same time, OSPAR noted the recommendation from the Save the North Sea Project Fulmar Study for a formulation based upon the weight of plastic particles found. OSPAR asked ICES to consider these recommendations further. This background document has been prepared by Dr J. A Franker of Wageningen-IMARES under contract to the Netherlands Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, taking into account the advice prepared by ICES. The document proposes and evaluates the background for the following formulation for the EcoQO:

There should be less than 10% of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) having more than 0.1 g plastic particles in the stomach in samples of 50 to 100 beach-washed fulmars found in winter (November to April) from each of 4 to 5 areas of the North Sea over a period of at least five years

The document includes an evaluation of current and historic levels in relation to the EcoQO together with proposals for potential management measures to reach the EcoQO and an estimation of the potential costs of monitoring in relation to the EcoQO.

pdf OSPAR Commission (2015). CEMP Guidelines for Monitoring and Assessment of plastic particles in stomachs of fulmars in the North Sea area: OSPAR Commission.

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OSPAR Commissio-2015-CEMP Guidelines for Monit.pdf

OSPAR Commission (2015). CEMP Guidelines for Monitoring and Assessment of plastic particles in stomachs of fulmars in the North Sea area: OSPAR Commission.

The quantity of debris, in particular of plastics, ingested by marine organisms reflects the abundance of marine litter, the associated harm to wildlife and the marine ecosystem, and socio-economic harm. OSPAR has agreed to implement the monitoring of plastics in stomachs of seabirds (EcoQO 3.3) as a common indicator in the North Sea (OSPAR 2009, 2010a,b; 2014a,b). This has been implemented through long term monitoring of plastic abundance in stomach contents of a common seabird in the North Sea, the Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), with methods and results published in regular reports (see references Van Franeker in Chpt5) and peer reviewed scientific literature (Van Franeker et al. 2011; Van Franeker & Law 2015). The Fulmar EcoQO methodology is also being used elsewhere in the North Atlantic and North Pacific areas (e.g. Provencher et al. 2009; Avery-Gomm et al. 2012; Kühn & Van Franeker 2012; Bond et al. 2014; Trevail et al., 2015) allowing wide spatial comparisons of environmental quality in European waters. The OSPAR EcoQO for the fulmar has been adopted in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) in Descriptor 10 Indicator 2, which is suitable for implementation in the Greater North Sea, Arctic Waters, and Celtic Seas, and has been taken as example for other biota indicators for marine litter in other MSFD areas where no fulmars occur.

The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines for a monitoring and assessment program that allows efficient detection of spatial differences and temporal changes in marine plastic debris floating at the sea surface using fulmar stomach contents as an indicator.

pdf OSPAR Commission (2017). Assessment document of land-based inputs of microplastics in the marine environment. OSPAR No.: 94.

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OSPAR Commissio-2017-Assessment document of la.pdf

OSPAR Commission (2017). Assessment document of land-based inputs of microplastics in the marine environment. OSPAR No.: 94.

The pollution of the marine environment with plastic (macro) litter and microplastic particles, is regarded as a major global environmental problem. Plastic material is a valuable material in our society and is used in a diverse range of applications, both short and long term, before potentially becoming waste. Loss of plastics to the environment may occur at any stage of the life cycle.

Global plastic production has increased from 50 million tons in 1976 to 315 million tons in 2015, leading to large quantities of mismanaged plastic waste, litter and broken down particles entering the marine environment. In this report, source emissions and potential impacts of microplastics in the OSPAR Maritime Area are described to facilitate prioritization of further actions to mitigate microplastic emissions to the environment. The sources were selected at an international stakeholder conference held by OSPAR in December 2015 in Rotterdam. This report is based on existing literature. It was agreed by the OSPAR Intersessional Correspondence Group on Marine Litter (ICG ML) that recommendations with respect to reduction targets, research needs, and mitigation measures, were outside of the scope of this report.