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pdf United Nations (1982). Convention on the Law of the Sea

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United Nations-1982-Convention on the Law of t.pdf

United Nations (1982). Convention on the Law of the Sea
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pdf United Nations (2012). Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD)

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United Nations-2012-Conference on Sustainable.pdf

United Nations (2012). Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD)
No Abstract Available

pdf van Franeker, J. A. and K. L. Law (2015). Seabirds, gyres and global trends in plastic pollution. Environ Pollut, 203: 89-96

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van Franeker-2015-Seabirds, gyres and global t.pdf

van Franeker, J. A. and K. L. Law (2015). Seabirds, gyres and global trends in plastic pollution. Environ Pollut, 203: 89-96

Fulmars are effective biological indicators of the abundance of floating plastic marine debris. Long-term data reveal high plastic abundance in the southern North Sea, gradually decreasing to the north at increasing distance from population centres, with lowest levels in high-arctic waters. Since the 1980s, pre-production plastic pellets in North Sea fulmars have decreased by ~75%, while user plastics varied without a strong overall change. Similar trends were found in net-collected floating plastic debris in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, with a ~75% decrease in plastic pellets and no obvious trend in user plastic. The decreases in pellets suggest that changes in litter input are rapidly visible in the environment not only close to presumed sources, but also far from land. Floating plastic debris is rapidly “lost” from the ocean surface to other as-yet undetermined sinks in the marine environment.

pdf Veiga, J., F. D., K. S., P. Nilsson, T. Vlachogianni, S. Werner, F. Galgani, R. Thompson, D. J., G. J., P. Sobral, C. R. and H. G. (2016). Identifying Sources of Marine Litter. MSFD GES TG Marine Litter Thematic Report. JRC Technical Report No.

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Veiga-2016-Identifying Sources of Marine Litte.pdf

Veiga, J., F. D., K. S., P. Nilsson, T. Vlachogianni, S. Werner, F. Galgani, R. Thompson, D. J., G. J., P. Sobral, C. R. and H. G. (2016). Identifying Sources of Marine Litter. MSFD GES TG Marine Litter Thematic Report. JRC Technical Report No.

Marine litter is a global problem causing harm to marine wildlife, coastal communities and maritime activities. It also embodies an emerging concern for human health and safety. The reduction of marine litter pollution poses a complex challenge for humankind, requiring adjustments in human behaviour as well as in the different phases of the life- cycle of products and across multiple economic sectors.

The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires European Member States to monitor marine litter and implement programmes of measures to reduce its occurrence. A crucial step in monitoring and effectively addressing marine litter is the identification of the origin and the pathways that lead to litter entering the marine environment. A given site or region can be subject to litter pollution from a number of sources, which can be local, regional or even distant, as litter can be transported to a specific area by ocean currents and wind drift. For this reason, pinpointing the origin of the different items that make up marine litter is a difficult task and will always have an inherent degree of associated uncertainty. Plastic food packaging recorded in the marine environment, for example, can consist of a diverse selection of items, which can be generated from a number of sources, which in turn can be sea-based or land-based and originate from near or distant regions.

A wide variety of methods have been used over the years to determine the sources of marine litter, from simple counts of items believed to originate from a given source to more complex statistical methods. This report provides a brief overview of the main methods used and outlines one of the most promising approaches for determining sources – a Matrix Score Technique based on likelihoods, which considers the possibility that specific items originate from more than one source. Furthermore, it presents a series of other parameters that can be used to analyse data-sets, with regard to the use, origin and risk of items recorded in the marine or coastal environments. These can further support decision-making when considering preventive measures. Finally, recommendations to help the process of identification of sources are given, from the early stage of data collection and site characterization to bringing in the knowledge of local stakeholders to better determine where litter is coming from and what needs to be done to prevent it.

pdf Villarrubia-Gómez, P., S. E. Cornell and J. Fabres (2017). Marine plastic pollution as a planetary boundary threat – The drifting piece in the sustainability puzzle. Marine Policy

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Villarrubia-Góm-2017-Marine plastic pollution.pdf

Villarrubia-Gómez, P., S. E. Cornell and J. Fabres (2017). Marine plastic pollution as a planetary boundary threat – The drifting piece in the sustainability puzzle. Marine Policy

The exponential increase in the use of plastic in modern society and the inadequate management of the resulting waste have led to its accumulation in the marine environment. There is increasing evidence of numerous mechanisms by which marine plastic pollution is causing effects across successive levels of biological organization. This will unavoidably impact ecological communities and ecosystem functions. A remaining question to be answered is if the concentration of plastic in the ocean, today or in the future, will reach levels above a critical threshold leading to global effects in vital Earth-system processes, thus granting the consideration of marine plastic pollution as a key component of the planetary boundary threat associated with chemical pollutants. Possible answers to this question are explored by reviewing and evaluating existing knowledge of the effects of plastic pollution in marine ecosystems and the ‘core planetary boundaries’, biosphere integrity and climate change. The irreversibility and global ubiquity of marine plastic pollution mean that two essential conditions for a planetary boundary threat are already met. The Earth system consequences of plastic pollution are still uncertain, but pathways and mechanisms for thresholds and global systemic change are identified. Irrespective of the recognition of plastic as a novel entity in the planetary boundaries framework, it is certain that marine plastic pollution is closely intertwined with global processes to a point that deserves careful management and prevention.

pdf Warren, J. A., J. E. Berner and T. Curtis (2016). Climate change and human health: infrastructure impacts to small remote communities in the north. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 64(5): 487-497

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Warren-2016-Climate change and human health_ i.pdf

Warren, J. A., J. E. Berner and T. Curtis (2016). Climate change and human health: infrastructure impacts to small remote communities in the north. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 64(5): 487-497

In northern regions, climate change can include changes in precipitation magnitude and frequency, reductions in sea ice extent and thickness, and climate warming and cooling. These changes can increase the frequency and severity of storms, flooding, or erosion; other changes may include drought or degradation of permafrost. Climate change can result in damage to sanitation infra- structure resulting in the spread of disease or threatening a community’s ability to maintain its economy, geographic location and cultural tradition, leading to mental stress. Through moni- toring of some basic indicators communities can begin to develop a response to climate change. With this information, planners, engineers, health care professionals and governments can begin to develop approaches to address the challenges related to climate change.

pdf Weingartner et al. (2017). The summer hydrographic structure of the Hanna Shoal region on the northeastern Chukchi Sea shelf: 2011–2013

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weingartner2017_The summer hydrographic struct.pdf

Weingartner et al. (2017).  The summer hydrographic structure of the Hanna Shoal region on the northeastern Chukchi Sea shelf: 2011–2013

We used shipboard and towed CTD, current meter, and satellite-tracked drifter data to examine the hydrographic structure in the northeastern Chukchi Sea in August–September of 2011, 2012, and 2013. In all years the densest winter water was around and east of Hanna Shoal. In 2012 and 2013, a ~ 15 m deep layer of cold, dilute meltwater overlaid the dense water north of the shelf region between ~ 71.2 and ~ 71.5°N. A front extends from the southwest side of Hanna Shoal toward the head of Barrow Canyon, separated meltwaters from warmer, saltier Bering Sea Summer Waters to the south. Stratification was stronger and the surface density variances in the meso- and sub-mesoscale range were higher north of the front than to the south. No meltwater or surface fronts were present in 2011 due to a very early ice retreat. Differences in summer ice cover may be due to differences in the amount of grounded ice atop Hanna Shoal associated with the previous winter’s regional ice drift.

Along the north side of Hanna Shoal the model-predicted clockwise barotropic flow carrying waters from the western side of the Shoal appears to converge with a counterclockwise, baroclinic flow on the northeast side. The baroclinic tendency is confined to the upper 30 m and can include waters transported from the shelfbreak. The inferred zonal convergence implies that north of the Shoal: a) near-surface waters are a mixture of waters from the western and eastern Chukchi Sea and b) the cross-isobath pressure gradient collapses thereby facilitating leakage of upper layer waters northward across the shelf.

pdf Werner, S., A. Budziak, J. A. van Franeker, F. Galgani, G. Hanke, T. Maes, M. Matiddi, P. Nilsson, L. Oosterbaan, E. Priestland, R. Thompson, J. Veiga and T. Vlachogianni (2016). Harm caused by Marine Litter. MSFD GES TG Marine Litter -Thematic Report No.

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Werner-2016-Harm caused by Marine Litter. MSFD.pdf

Werner, S., A. Budziak, J. A. van Franeker, F. Galgani, G. Hanke, T. Maes, M. Matiddi, P. Nilsson, L. Oosterbaan, E. Priestland, R. Thompson, J. Veiga and T. Vlachogianni (2016). Harm caused by Marine Litter. MSFD GES TG Marine Litter -Thematic Report No.

Marine litter is a global concern with a range of problems associated to it, as recognised by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Marine litter can impact organisms at different levels of biological organization and habitats in a number of ways namely: through entanglement in, or ingestion of, litter items by individuals, resulting in death and/or severe suffering; through chemical and microbial transfer; as a vector for transport of biota and by altering or modifying assemblages of species. Marine litter is a threat not only to marine species and ecosystems but also carries a risk to human health and has significant implications to human welfare, impacting negatively vital economic sectors such as tourism, fisheries, aquaculture or energy supply and bringing economic losses to individuals, enterprises and communities.

This technical report aims to provide clear insight about the major negative impacts from marine litter by describing the mechanisms of harm. Further it provides reflexions about the evidence for harm from marine litter to biota comprising the underlying aspect of animal welfare while also considering the socioeconomic effects, including the influence of marine litter on ecosystem services.

General conclusions highlight that understanding the risks and uncertainties with regard to the harm caused by marine litter is closely associated with the precautionary principle. The collected evidence in this report can be regarded as a supporting step to define harm and to provide an evidence base for the various actions needed to be implemented by decision-makers. This improved knowledge about the scale of the harmful effects of marine litter will further support EU Member States (MSs) and Regional Seas Conventions (RSCs) to implement their programme of measures, regional action plans and assessments.

pdf Wieczorek, A. M., L. Morrison, P. L. Croot, A. L. Allcock, E. MacLoughlin, O. Savard, H. Brownlow and T. K. Doyle (2018). Frequency of Microplastics in Mesopelagic Fishes from the Northwest Atlantic. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5

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Wieczorek-2018-Frequency of Microplastics in M.pdf

Wieczorek, A. M., L. Morrison, P. L. Croot, A. L. Allcock, E. MacLoughlin, O. Savard, H. Brownlow and T. K. Doyle (2018). Frequency of Microplastics in Mesopelagic Fishes from the Northwest Atlantic. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5

Microplastics are a ubiquitous pollutant in our seas today and are known to have detrimental effects on a variety of organisms. Over the past decade numerous studies have documented microplastic ingestion by marine species with more recent investigations focussing on the secondary impacts of microplastic ingestion on ecosystem processes. However, few studies so far have examined microplastic ingestion by mesopelagic fish which are one of the most abundant pelagic groups in our oceans and through their vertical migrations are known to contribute significantly to the rapid transport of carbon and nutrients to the deep sea. Therefore, any ingestion of microplastics by mesopelagic fish may adversely affect this cycling and may aid in transport of microplastics from surface waters to the deep-sea benthos. In this study microplastics were extracted from mesopelagic fish under forensic conditions and analysed for polymer type utilising micro-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (micro-FTIR) analysis. Fish specimens were collected from depth (300–600m) in a warm-core eddy located in the Northwest Atlantic, 1,200 km due west of Newfoundland during April and May 2015. In total, 233 fish gut contents from seven different species of mesopelagic fish were examined. An alkaline dissolution of organic materials from extracted stomach contents was performed and the solution filtered over a 0.7μm borosilicate filter. Filters were examined for microplastics and a subsample originating from 35 fish was further analysed for polymer type through micro-FTIR analysis. Seventy-three percent of all fish contained plastics in their gut contents with Gonostoma denudatum having the highest ingestion rate (100%) followed by Serrivomer beanii (93%) and Lampanyctus macdonaldi (75%). Overall, we found a much higher occurrence of microplastic fragments, mainly polyethylene fibres, in the gut contents of mesopelagic fish than previously reported. Stomach fullness, species and the depth at which fish were caught at, were found to have no effect on the amount of microplastics found in the gut contents. However, these plastics were similar to those sampled from the surface water. Additionally, using forensic techniques we were able to highlight that fibres are a real concern rather than an artefact of airborne contamination.

pdf Wilcox, C., E. Van Sebille and B. D. Hardesty (2015). Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 112(38): 11899-11904

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Wilcox-2015-Threat of plastic pollution to sea.pdf

Wilcox, C., E. Van Sebille and B. D. Hardesty (2015). Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 112(38): 11899-11904

Plastic pollution in the ocean is a global concern; concentrations reach 580,000 pieces per km2 and production is increasing expo- nentially. Although a large number of empirical studies provide emerging evidence of impacts to wildlife, there has been little systematic assessment of risk. We performed a spatial risk analysis using predicted debris distributions and ranges for 186 seabird species to model debris exposure. We adjusted the model using published data on plastic ingestion by seabirds. Eighty of 135 (59%) species with studies reported in the literature between 1962 and 2012 had ingested plastic, and, within those studies, on average 29% of individuals had plastic in their gut. Standard- izing the data for time and species, we estimate the ingestion rate would reach 90% of individuals if these studies were conducted today. Using these results from the literature, we tuned our risk model and were able to capture 71% of the variation in plastic ingestion based on a model including exposure, time, study method, and body size. We used this tuned model to predict risk across seabird species at the global scale. The highest area of expected impact occurs at the Southern Ocean boundary in the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand, which contrasts with previous work identifying this area as having low anthropo- genic pressures and concentrations of marine debris. We predict that plastics ingestion is increasing in seabirds, that it will reach 99% of all species by 2050, and that effective waste management can reduce this threat.

pdf Wyles, K. J., S. Pahl, K. Thomas and R. C. Thompson (2016). Factors That Can Undermine the Psychological Benefits of Coastal Environments: Exploring the Effect of Tidal State, Presence, and Type of Litter. Environ Behav, 48(9): 1095-1126

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Wyles-2016-Factors That Can Undermine the Psyc.pdf

Wyles, K. J., S. Pahl, K. Thomas and R. C. Thompson (2016). Factors That Can Undermine the Psychological Benefits of Coastal Environments: Exploring the Effect of Tidal State, Presence, and Type of Litter. Environ Behav, 48(9): 1095-1126

The beneficial effects of blue environments have been well documented; however, we do not know how marine litter might modify these effects. Three studies adopted a picture-rating task to examine the influence of litter on preference, perceived restorative quality, and psychological impacts. Photographs varied the presence of marine litter (Study 1) and the type of litter (Studies 2 and 3). The influence of tide and the role of connectedness were also explored. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, it was shown that litter can undermine the psychological benefits that the coast ordinarily provides, thus demonstrating that, in addition to environmental costs of marine litter, there are also costs to people. Litter stemming from the public had the most negative impact. This research extends our understanding of the psychological benefits from natural coastal environments and the threats to these benefits from abundant and increasing marine litter.

pdf Yoshida, K., N. Baba, M. Kiyota, M. Nakajima, Y. Fujimaki and A. Furuta (1990a). Studies of the effects of net fragment entaglement on northern fur seals. Part 2: Swimming Behaviour of entagled nad nonentangled fur seals. The Second International Conferen

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Yoshida-1990-Studies of the effects of net fra.PDF

Yoshida, K., N. Baba, M. Kiyota, M. Nakajima, Y. Fujimaki and A. Furuta (1990a). Studies of the effects of net fragment entaglement on northern fur seals. Part 2: Swimming Behaviour of entagled nad nonentangled fur seals. The Second International Conferen

The effects of net fragment entanglement on the swimming behavior of fur seals were observed. Net fragments of six different weights (0.5 to 3 kg) were attached to the necks of eight fur seals, two males and six females, 4 to 9 years old. They were released in an aquarium pool with fish, and their swimming speed and time required to capture a fish were recorded. Of the eight individuals examined, three showed active feeding behavior. As the amount of attached net was increased, swimming speed decreased and more time was required for an entangled seal to catch a fish. Decrease in swimming speed was proportional to the relative load of net fragments (net weight/body weight).

pdf Yoshida, K., N. Baba, M. Kiyota, M. Nakajima, Y. Fujimaki and A. Furuta (1990b). Studies of the effects of net fragments entanglement on northern fur seals. Part 1: Daily activity patterns of entangled and nonentangled fur seals. The Second International

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Yoshida-1990-Studies of the effects of net fra 2.PDF

Yoshida, K., N. Baba, M. Kiyota, M. Nakajima, Y. Fujimaki and A. Furuta (1990b). Studies of the effects of net fragments entanglement on northern fur seals. Part 1: Daily activity patterns of entangled and nonentangled fur seals. The Second International

Effects of net fragment entanglement on the behavior of fur seals were examined using radio telemetry. Radio transmitters were attached to three fur seals 5 - 8 years old kept in an aquarium. Two of the seals were entangled with 1- and 2-kg fishing net fragments, respectively, around their necks. Usingradio telemetry, their activity patterns were recorded for 36 days, from 28 January to 4 March 1985. The seal entangled with the 2-kg net showed the shortest active time per day and the nonentan- gled seal showed the longest. Active time of the entangled individualsincreasedafterremovalofthenets. It becamed clear that the active time of fur seals was diminished by entan- glement in net fragments.