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pdf Provencher, J. F., A. L. Bond, S. Avery-Gomm, S. B. Borrelle, E. L. Bravo Rebolledo, S. Hammer, S. Kuhn, J. L. Lavers, M. L. Mallory, A. M. Trevail and J. A. van Franeker (2017). Quantifying ingested debris in marine megafauna: a review and recommendation

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Provencher-2017-Quantifying ingested debris in.pdf

Provencher, J. F., A. L. Bond, S. Avery-Gomm, S. B. Borrelle, E. L. Bravo Rebolledo, S. Hammer, S. Kuhn, J. L. Lavers, M. L. Mallory, A. M. Trevail and J. A. van Franeker (2017). Quantifying ingested debris in marine megafauna: a review and recommendation

Plastic pollution has become one of the largest environmental challenges we currently face. The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) has listed it as a critical problem, comparable to climate change, demonstrating both the scale and degree of the environmental problem. Mortalities due to entanglement in plastic fishing nets and bags have been reported for marine mammals, turtles and seabirds, and to date over 690 marine species have been reported to ingest plastics. The body of literature documenting plastic ingestion by marine megafauna (i.e. seabirds, turtles, fish and marine mammals) has grown rapidly over the last decade, and it is expected to continue grow as researchers explore the ecological impacts of marine pollution. Unfortunately, a cohesive approach by the scientific community to quantify plastic ingestion by wildlife is lacking, which is now hindering spatial and temporal comparisons between and among species/ organisms. Here, we discuss and propose standardized techniques, approaches and metrics for reporting debris ingestion that are applicable to most large marine vertebrates. As a case study, we examine how the use of standardized methods to report ingested debris in Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) has enabled long term and spatial trends in plastic pollution to be studied. Lastly, we outline standardized metric recommendations for reporting ingested plastics in marine megafauna, with the aim to harmonize the data that are available to facilitate large-scale comparisons and meta-analyses of plastic accumulation in a variety of taxa. If standardized methods are adopted, future plastic ingestion research will be better able to inform questions related to the impacts of plastics across taxonomic, ecosystem and spatial scales.

pdf Ribic, C. A. and G. L. Swartzman (1990). An index of fur seal entanglement in floating net fragments. The Second International Conference on Marine Debris, Honolulu.

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Ribic-1990-An index of fur seal entanglement i.PDF

Ribic, C. A. and G. L. Swartzman (1990). An index of fur seal entanglement in floating net fragments. The Second International Conference on Marine Debris, Honolulu.

While information has been published on transect surveys based on visual sighting of floating marine debris, few attempts have been made to link the estimates of floating marine debris density to the entanglement rate observed in subadult male fur seals. Both published and unpublished survey data were used to develop a data base consisting of the location and season during which floating marine debris were observed and the estimated density of the debris. In conjunction with this data base, similar information was used far at-sea sightings of fur seals to calculate an index of potential entanglement by season (winter and breeding season, spring and fall migration). Our main conclusion is that much more information is needed to cover the known range of migrating northern fur seals. However, with these limited data, it appears that seals are most at risk during the breeding season and during the fall migration. Our conclusions are tentative due to assumptions used in calculating the index and the lack of geographical overlap between oceanic debris surveys and fur seal surveys.

pdf Ryan, P. G. (2015b). How quickly do albatrosses and petrels digest plastic particles? Environ Pollut, 207: 438-440

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Ryan-2015-How quickly do albatrosses and petre.pdf

Ryan, P. G. (2015b). How quickly do albatrosses and petrels digest plastic particles? Environ Pollut, 207: 438-440

Understanding how rapidly seabirds excrete or regurgitate ingested plastic items is important for their use as monitors of marine debris. van Franeker and Law (2015) inferred that fulmarine petrels excrete ~75% of plastic particles within a month of ingestion based on decreases in the amounts of plastic in the stomachs of adult petrels moving to relatively clean environments to breed. However, similar decreases occur among resident species due to adults passing plastic loads to their chicks. The few direct measures of wear rates and retention times of persistent stomach contents suggest longer plastic residence times in most albatrosses and petrels. Residence time presumably varies with item size, type of plastic, the amount and composition of other persistent stomach contents, and the size at which items are excreted, which may vary among taxa. Accurate measures of ingested plastic retention times are needed to better understand temporal and spatial patterns in ingested plastic loads within marine organisms, especially if they are to be used as indicators of plastic pollution trends.

pdf Sadove, S. S. and S. J. Morreale (1990). Marine mammal and sea turtle encounters with marine debris in the New York Bight and the northeast Atlantic. The Second International Conference on Marine Debris, Honolulu.

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Sadove-1990-Marine mammal and sea turtle encou.PDF

Sadove, S. S. and S. J. Morreale (1990). Marine mammal and sea turtle encounters with marine debris in the New York Bight and the northeast Atlantic. The Second International Conference on Marine Debris, Honolulu.

The incidence of ingestion of synthetics by, and entanglement of, marine mammals and sea turtles in the New York Bight (1979-88) and in Iceland (1985) was documented and related to the ecology of these animals. Post mortems of 88 cetaceans, 37 pinnipeds, and 1 1 6 sea turtles in the New York Bight revealed ingestion of synthetics in 24 animals. Differences were observed among the groups of animals. Synthetics were found in 3 mysti- cete whales, in 7 odontocete whales (3 delphinids, 3 physterids, and 1 phocoenid), and in 14 sea turtles (10 leatherbacks, Dermo- chelys coriacea, 3 loggerheads,Caretta caretta, and 1 green, Cheloniamydas). No synthetics were found in the gut of any pinnipeds or in Kemp's ridley turtles, Lepidochelys kempi. Seventy-five individuals were entangled, including 4 mysticetes, 13 odontocetes, and 58 seaturtles. InIceland, 6 of 82 examined fin whales, Balaenoptera physalus, contained ingested synthetics, and 5 of 95 showed signs of previous entanglement. The types of synthetics ingested and the rate of occurrence of both ingestion and entanglement were related to the feeding behavior, timing, and distribution of the species. The results indicate that certain species of marine mammals and sea turtles are more likely to interact with debris than others. In these animals ingestion of synthetics and entanglement appear to be frequent and widespread

pdf SALT Lofoten AS (SALT), V. Havas and J. H. R. (2017). «Fishing For Litter» as a measure against marine litter in Norway. Miljødirektoratet. Rapport No. M-903. 28.

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SALT Lofoten AS-2017-«Fishing For Litter» as a.pdf

SALT Lofoten AS (SALT), V. Havas and J. H. R. (2017). «Fishing For Litter» as a measure against marine litter in Norway. Miljødirektoratet. Rapport No. M-903. 28.

SALT has been assigned the implementation of the 2-year Fishing For Litter (FFL) pilot program by the Norwegian Environment Agency. The program has been carried out in selected harbours in Norway during 2016-2017. This report summarises the implementation and experiences from the second year of the pilot program. The program has been extended from 3 to 8 harbours during 2017.

pdf Samuelson, G. M. (1998). Water and Waste Management Issues in the Canadian Arctic: Iqaluit, Baffin Island. Canadian Water Resources Journal, 23(4): 327-338

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Samuelson-1998-Water and Waste Management Issu.pdf

Samuelson, G. M. (1998). Water and Waste Management Issues in the Canadian Arctic: Iqaluit, Baffin Island. Canadian Water Resources Journal, 23(4): 327-338

Water and waste management issues for the town of lqaluit, a rapidly growing coastal community soon to be the capital of Nunavut, are examined in this study. The expanding population of lqaluit has resulted in increased pressure on the coastal environment, and waste management issues have become increasingly complicated. Analysis of the freshwater entering the coastal waters identifies the sewage lagoon as a source of disturbance. Dissolved oxygen readings indicate heavy pollution. TAB/BART tests, used for the first time in the Canadian Arctic, indicate a highly aggressive to aggressive bacteria population. Results from previous studies indicate that the dumosites are also sources of disturbance. lt is evident that the activities of the community of lqaluit are impacting the coastal environment. In order to reduce these impacts, improvements to existing facilities are required, and careful planning tailored to the Arctic environment is necessary in order to accommodate future growth in lqaluit.

pdf Stevens, B. G., I. Vining, S. Byersdorfer and W. Donaldson (2000). Ghost fishing by Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) pots off Kodiak, Alaska: Pot density and catch per trap as determined from sidescan sonar and pot recovery data. Fishery Bulletin - NOAA,

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Stevens-2000-Ghost fishing by Tanner crab (Chi.pdf

Stevens, B. G., I. Vining, S. Byersdorfer and W. Donaldson (2000). Ghost fishing by Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) pots off Kodiak, Alaska: Pot density and catch per trap as determined from sidescan sonar and pot recovery data. Fishery Bulletin - NOAA,

Sidescan sonar was used to locate 189 putative lost crab pots in a 4.5 km2 area of Chiniak Bay, near Kodiak, Alaska. Subsequent observations of 15 such objects by submersible and ROV verified that they were indeed crab pots. In 1995 and 1996, 147 pots were recovered from the surveyed and adjacent nonsurveyed areas by grappling, and their condition and contents were examined. Tanner crabs, Chio- noecetes bairdi, were the most abundant organism, with 227 found in 24 pots (16% frequency of occurrence); sun-flower sea stars (Pycnopodia helianthoides) were the most frequent (42%) occupant and second most abundant (189 in 62 pots). Octopuses (Octopus dofleini) were significantly associated with pots containing Tanner crabs. Occurrence of crabs in pots was primarily a function of background crab density and differed between the surveyed and nonsurveyed areas. Recently lost pots (< 1yr old) had significantly more male crabs, significantly larger male crabs, and contained seven times more total crabs than older pots (those lost two or more years prior to recovery). The proportion of pots with damaged webbing increased with pot age, but holes in pot webbing did not signifi- cantly affect catch per pot.

pdf Sundet (2014). The snow crab - Report from the workshop: Workshop on king- and snow crabs in the Barents Sea

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Sundet-2014-The snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio.pdf

Sundet (2014). The snow crab - Report from the workshop: Workshop on king- and snow crabs in the Barents Sea
No Abstract Available

pdf Tanaka, K., H. Takada, R. Yamashita, K. Mizukawa, M. A. Fukuwaka and Y. Watanuki (2013). Accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals in tissues of seabirds ingesting marine plastics. Mar Pollut Bull, 69(1-2): 219-222

Tagged in Microplastics 33 downloads

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Tanaka-2013-Accumulation of plastic-derived ch.pdf

Tanaka, K., H. Takada, R. Yamashita, K. Mizukawa, M. A. Fukuwaka and Y. Watanuki (2013). Accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals in tissues of seabirds ingesting marine plastics. Mar Pollut Bull, 69(1-2): 219-222

We analyzed polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in abdominal adipose of oceanic seabirds (short- tailed shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris) collected in northern North Pacific Ocean. In 3 of 12 birds, we detected higher-brominated congeners (viz., BDE209 and BDE183), which are not present in the natural prey (pelagic fish) of the birds. The same compounds were present in plastic found in the stomachs of the 3 birds. These data suggested the transfer of plastic-derived chemicals from ingested plastics to the tis- sues of marine-based organisms.

pdf Trites, A. W. (1992). Northern fur seals: why have they declined. Aquatic Mammals, 18(1): 3- 18.

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Trites-1992-Northern fur seals_ why have they.pdf

Trites, A. W. (1992). Northern fur seals: why have they declined. Aquatic Mammals, 18(1): 3- 18.

A high mortality of juvenile and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) is believed to be responsible for the most recent decline of the Pribilof population which began in the early 1970s. The two most likely explanations for the high mortality rates are related to 1) commercial fishingof major fur seal prey species in the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska, and 2) entrapment of seals in lost and discarded fishing gear. A review of the entanglement hypothesis found many of the assertions made about the extent of entanglement mortality were poorly supported by the available data and were inconsistent with the dynamics of other pinniped populations. The build up of commercial fishing is consistent with the timing of the fur seal decline, but studies of growth (lengths and weights of pups, subadults and adults) and the duration of foraging trips by lactating mothers suggest per capita increases in food abundance. These fur seal observations suggest food resources in the spring are sufficient to meet the needs of the currently low population as the seals migrate north through the coastal waters of British Columbia and Alaska. However, the data are also consistent with the view that per capita fish abundance is insufficient for young fur seals during the fall migration as the seals swim south through the Aleutian archipelago. It is hypothesized that reduced food availability for young fur seals in the Gulf of Alaska during this stage of the seal's life cycle creates a bottleneck for the entire population, which can account for the decline of the Pribilof herd. This possibility is supported by the sharp decline in numbers of Steller sea lions and harbour seals along the Alaskan panhandle.

pdf Troell, M., A. Eide, J. Isaksen, O. Hermansen and A. S. Crepin (2017). Seafood from a changing Arctic. Ambio, 46(Suppl 3): 368-386 DOI: 10.1007/s13280-017-0954-2.

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Troell-2017-Seafood from a changing Arctic.pdf

Troell, M., A. Eide, J. Isaksen, O. Hermansen and A. S. Crepin (2017). Seafood from a changing Arctic. Ambio, 46(Suppl 3): 368-386 DOI: 10.1007/s13280-017-0954-2.

We review current knowledge about climate change impacts on Arctic seafood production. Large-scale changes in the Arctic marine food web can be expected for the next 40–100 years. Possible future trajectories under climate change for Arctic capture fisheries anticipate the movement of aquatic species into new waters and changed the dynamics of existing species. Negative consequences are expected for some fish stocks but others like the Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua) may instead increase. Arctic aquaculture that constitutes about 2% of global farming is mainly made up of Norwegian salmon (Salmo salar) farming. The sector will face many challenges in a warmer future and some of these are already a reality impacting negatively on salmon growth. Other more indirect effects from climate change are more uncertain with respect to impacts on the economic conditions of Arctic aquaculture.

pdf UNEP (2009). Marine Litter: A Global Challenge

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UNEP-2009-Marine Litter_ A Global Challenge.pdf

UNEP (2009). Marine Litter: A Global Challenge
No Abstract Available

pdf UNEP (2012). The Honolulu Strategy A global framework for prevention and management of marine debris

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UNEP-2012-The Honolulu Strategy_ A global fram.pdf

UNEP (2012). The Honolulu Strategy A global framework for prevention and management of marine debris

The Honolulu Strategy is a framework for a comprehensive and global effort to reduce the ecological, human health, and economic impacts of marine debris globally. The Honolulu Strategy is intended for use as a:

Planning tool for developing or refining spatially or sector-specific marine debris programs and projects
Common frame of reference for collaboration and sharing of best practices and lessons learned
Monitoring tool to measure progress across multiple programs and projects

The Honolulu Strategy is a framework document. It does not supplant or supersede activities of national authorities, municipalities, industry, international organizations, or other stakeholders; rather, it provides a focal point for improved collaboration and coordination among the multitude of stakeholders across the globe concerned with marine debris. Successful implementation of it will require participation and support on multiple levels—global, regional, national, and local— involving the full spectrum of civil society, government and intergovernmental organizations, and the private sector.

This results-oriented framework consists of three goals and associated strategies to reduce the amount and impact of marine debris from land-based and sea-based sources and marine debris accumulations (Table ES-1). Conceptual models and results chains were the basis of the framework in the Honolulu Strategy. The Fifth International Marine Debris Conference, in March 2011, catalyzed development of the Honolulu Strategy. Input from conference participants and stakeholders around the world was solicited and incorporated into development of the Honolulu Strategy.

pdf UNEP (2016). Marine Litter Legislation: A Toolkit for Policymakers

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UNEP-2016-Marine litter legislation_ A toolkit.pdf

UNEP (2016). Marine Litter Legislation: A Toolkit for Policymakers

Marine litter poses serious environmental, health, and economic threats to oceans and coastal ecosystems. It also presents a unique legal and regulatory challenge for many nation States (hereinafter States), as it can originate from diverse land-based and sea-based sources both within and outside of a State. While the full magnitude of the problem can be difficult to ascertain, some estimates suggest that an average of 8 million tons of plastic waste entered the ocean in 2010, and this figure has been projected to increase.

The prevalence of marine litter is the result of many different factors, including changing production and consumption patterns, inadequate waste management, and gaps in regulation of waste materials. The diverse sources require a comprehensive response. Accordingly, countries frequently utilize a variety of laws and policies to prevent, manage, and reduce the proliferation of marine litter. Many of these approaches are part of the general frameworks to reduce the generation and spread of solid waste, rather than being part of frameworks specifically designed to address marine litter. That said, a growing number of countries are developing targeted laws and policies to address marine litter—from laws mandating more research (e.g., in the United States) to laws banning certain types of products (e.g., plastic bags in Bangladesh and Rwanda), to overarching frameworks to address the growing problem (e.g., in Japan and Singapore).

Policies and laws need to address not only the removal of litter but are generally more successful when they govern the production, use, and disposal of products that would otherwise become marine litter. To this end, using a circular economy approach to prevent the generation of waste products can reduce the overall production of marine litter.