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pdf Aleut International Association (2016) Solid Waste Management in Small Arctic Communities

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Association-2016-Solid Waste Management in Sma.pdf

Aleut International Association (2016) Solid Waste Management in Small Arctic Communities
No Abstract Available

pdf Alfred Wegener Institute (2017). Litterbase

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AWI-2017-LITTERBASE.pdf

Alfred Wegener Institute (2017). Litterbase
No Abstract Available

pdf Blidberg, Eva et al. (2015). Marine Littering and Sources in Nordic Waters

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Blidberg-2015-Marine Littering and Sources in.pdf

Blidberg, Eva et al. (2015). Marine Littering and Sources in Nordic Waters

Marine litter is a global environmental problem that endangers sensitive marine ecosystems and wildlife. It also has major socio-economic and aesthetic impact and is strongly connected to a sustainable society. Most marine litter consists of plastic material and it is generally accepted that 80% of marine litter comes from land-based sources. Identifying these sources is an important key to proposing cost-effective measures. The background to this project is a joint interest by Nordic NGOs to collabo- rate and expand upon their current activities e.g. clean-up campaigns and monitoring of beach litter. A model for litter categorisation from a product perspective is introduced in order to identify targeted measures to reduce marine litter.

The pilot studies in the project are based on pick analyses of litter items collected during clean-up campaigns or in connection with beach litter monitoring. The results confirm that the most common types of litter found on beaches in all Nordic countries are made of plastic and polystyrene. Short-life items and packaging were the most common product types, strongly linking littering to individual consumers, alt- hough it should be noted that the litter can originate far beyond the bor- ders of the Nordic countries. Consequently, marine litter is largely a product of modern production and consumption. By contrast, litter from the beach studied in Norway had a higher proportion of industrial pack- aging from, for instance, the fishing and agricultural sectors, as well as packaging related to the transport of goods.

The project has shown that it is feasible to obtain further infor- mation on litter items from both monitoring surveys and beach clean- ups. To ensure high quality data, information from monitoring surveys is preferable but the statistical basis may become less. NGOs and grass- roots level organisations have an important role in the collection, anal- ysis and storage of such information. Measures relating to policy tar- gets for waste recycling are discussed along with the proposed changes to the Waste Framework Directive. Producers are charged with greater responsibility and expected to support prevention and clean-up initia- tives financially. Suggested goals include a 30% reduction in the ten most common beach litter items and fishing industry waste found at sea by 2020. It is concluded that the plastics and packaging industry

has an important role in this context. Raising public awareness by ar- ranging beach litter clean-up events is further suggested as an im- portant measure in the reduction of marine litter.

Even if the regional action plans in HELCOM and OSPAR support co- operation between riparian states, it would be beneficial if the Nordic countries could continue to share data. This includes identification of both litter composition and origin, for the dissemination and sharing of national knowledge and experience. Other measures include coopera- tion around clean-up activities, e.g. by arranging a Nordic Beach clean- up day. In this way, Nordic NGOs can be even more successful in their work against marine litter.

pdf Blidberg, Eva et al. (2017). Plug The Marine Litter Tap. A pilot study on potential marine litter sources in urban areas

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Blidberg-2017-Plug the marine litter tap_ A pi.pdf

Blidberg, Eva et al. (2017). Plug The Marine Litter Tap. A pilot study on potential marine litter sources in urban areas

Marine litter is a growing environmental problem, especially plastic material is accumulated in the seas where it will fragment to smaller pieces. Marine litter has severe consequences for the marine life, as well as for economy and social development. Marine litter is high on the political agenda, and legislations, amongst all the Marine Strategy Framework Directive's descriptor 10 for deter- mining good environmental status, aims at preventing waste to become marine litter. The purpose of the pilot study presented in this report is to raise awareness amongst officials at municipalities and authorities about the need to reduce the presence of litter in the marine environment and to give ideas/suggestions on how this can be done. The project has therefore developed a “Plug the Marine Litter Tap”-approach, which together with local knowledge and experience, can be used to identify sources of marine debris by using existing statistics. Södertälje is used as a pilot area where we give examples on indicators for marine litter in the urban environment and proposed measures for each indicator. We hope that this will encourage municipalities to reflect on how preventive measures against marine litter can be incorporated in local waste management plans and become part of their regular routine.

pdf Bond et al. (2013). Effectiveness of emetics to study plastic ingestion by Leach’s Storm-petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa)

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Bond-2013-Effectiveness of emetics to study pl.pdf

Bond et al. (2013). Effectiveness of emetics to study plastic ingestion by Leach’s Storm-petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa)

Most plastic ingestion studies rely on dissection of dead birds, which are found opportunistically, and may be biased. We used Leach’s Storm-petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa) in Newfoundland to study the effect of dose volume, and the efficacy of emesis using syrup of ipecac as an emetic. Ipecac is a safe method of non-lethally sampling stomach contents, and recovered all ingested plastic. Almost half the storm-petrels sampled had ingested plastic, ranging from 0 to 17 pieces, and weighing 0.2–16.9 mg. Using the Ecological Quality Objective for Northern Fulmars, adjusted for storm-petrels smaller size, 43% exceeded the threshold of 0.0077 g of plastic. Many adult seabirds offload plastic to their offspring, so storm-petrel chicks likely experience a higher plastic burden than their parents. The ability to study plastic ingestion non-lethally allows researchers to move from opportunistic and haphazard sampling to hypothesis-driven studies on a wider range of taxa and age classes.

pdf Boucher et al. (2017). Primary Microplastics in the Oceans: a Global Evaluation of Sources

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Boucher-2017-Primary Microplastics in the Ocea.pdf

Boucher et al. (2017). Primary Microplastics in the Oceans: a Global Evaluation of Sources

Plastic has penetrated everyday life: from clothing to coatings and from transport vehicles to cleaning products Plastic is cheap, durable, lightweight and malleable, resulting in a practically unlimited number of possible applications The disadvantages of plastics however are becoming more and more visible Large quantities of plastics leak into rivers and oceans, with adverse effects to marine ecosystems and related economic activities

Plastic wastes include all size residues, from large visible and easily removable items, to small invisible particles This report investigates the sources of primary microplastics i e microplastics that are directly released into the environment as small plastic particles (< 5 mm size) This contrasts with secondary microplastics that originate mostly from the degradation of large plastic waste into smaller plastic fragments once exposed to the marine environment Primary microplastics can be a voluntary addition to products such as scrubbing agents in personal care products (shower gels, creams, etc ) They can also originate from the abrasion of large plastic objects during manufacturing use or maintenance such as the erosion of tyres when driving or the abrasion of synthetic textiles during washing

This report is one of the first of its kind to quantify primary microplastics leakage and to demonstrate that these primary microplastics are globally responsible for a major source of plastics in the oceans The model developed for this analysis enables us to conclude that between 15 and 31% of all of the plastic in the oceans could originate from primary sources This is a significant but as-of-yet unrecognised proportion In some countries benefitting from advanced waste treatment facilities, primary microplastics releases even outweigh that of secondary microplastics

The global release of primary microplastics into the ocean was estimated at 1 5 million tons per year (Mtons/year) The estimate ranges between 0 8 and 2 5 Mtons/year according to an optimistic or pessimistic scenario The global figure corresponds to a world equivalent per capita release of 212 grams or the equivalent of one empty conventional plastic grocery bag thrown into the ocean per person/per week worldwide

The overwhelming majority of the losses of primary microplastics (98%) are generated from land- based activities Only 2% is generated from activities at sea The largest proportion of these particles stem from the laundering of synthetic textiles and from the abrasion of tyres while driving Most of the releases to the oceans are occurring from the use of products (49%) or the maintenance of products (28%) The main pathways of these plastics into the ocean are through road runoff (66%), wastewater treatment systems (25%) and wind transfer (7%)

The study reviewed seven regions – Africa and Middle East, China, East Asia and Oceania, Europe and Central Asia, India and South Asia, North America, and South America It revealed comparable releases per region in absolute value – ranging from 134 to 281 Ktons/year The per capita releases, however, are very different between regions – ranging from 110 to 750 grams/person/year Further, most regions are expected to have increased releases of primary microplastics in the next decades This is due to improvements in per capita income without improvements in systems to prevent the releases

pdf Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (2016). An evaluation of the Fishing for Litter (FFL) scheme

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Department for-2016-An evaluation of the Fishi.pdf

Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (2016). An evaluation of the Fishing for Litter (FFL) scheme
No Abstract Available

pdf Derraik (2002). The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review

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Derraik-2002-The pollution of the marine envir.pdf

Derraik (2002). The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review

The deleterious effects of plastic debris on the marine environment were reviewed by bringing together most of the literature published so far on the topic. A large number of marine species is known to be harmed and/or killed by plastic debris, which could jeopardize their survival, especially since many are already endangered by other forms of anthropogenic activities. Marine animals are mostly affected through entanglement in and ingestion of plastic litter. Other less known threats include the use of plastic debris by ‘‘invader’’ species and the absorption of polychlorinated biphenyls from ingested plastics. Less conspicuous forms, such as plastic pellets and ‘‘scrubbers’’ are also hazardous. To address the problem of plastic debris in the oceans is a difficult task, and a variety of approaches are urgently required. Some of the ways to mitigate the problem are discussed.

pdf Dris et al. (2016). Synthetic fibers in atmospheric fallout: A source of microplastics in the environment?

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Dris-2016-Synthetic fibers in atmospheric fall.pdf

Dris et al. (2016). Synthetic fibers in atmospheric fallout: A source of microplastics in the environment?

Sources, pathways and reservoirs of microplastics, plastic particles smaller than 5 mm, remain poorly documented in an urban context. While some studies pointed out wastewater treatment plants as a potential pathway of microplastics, none have focused on the atmospheric compartment. In this work, the atmospheric fallout of microplastics was investigated in two different urban and sub-urban sites. Microplastics were collected continu- ously with a stainless steel funnel. Samples were then filtered and observed with a stereomicroscope. Fibers accounted for almost all the microplastics collected. An atmospheric fallout between 2 and 355 particles/m2/ day was highlighted. Registered fluxes were systematically higher at the urban than at the sub-urban site. Chemical characterization allowed to estimate at 29% the proportion of these fibers being all synthetic (made with petrochemicals), or a mixture of natural and synthetic material. Extrapolation using weight and volume estimates of the collected fibers, allowed a rough estimation showing that between 3 and 10 tons of fibers are deposited by atmospheric fallout at the scale of the Parisian agglomeration every year (2500 km2). These results could serve the scientific community working on the different sources of microplastic in both continental and marine environments.

pdf Ebbesmeyer (1994). Pacific ToySpill Fuels Ocean Current Pathways Research

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Ebbesmeyer-1994-Pacific toy spill fuels ocean.pdf

Ebbesmeyer (1994). Pacific ToySpill Fuels Ocean Current Pathways Research
No Abstract Available

pdf Eklund et al. (2013). Disposal of plastic end-of-life-boats

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Eklund-2013-Disposal of plastic end-of-life-bo.pdf

Eklund et al. (2013). Disposal of plastic end-of-life-boats

The aim of this Nordic project was to describe the challenges of the dis- posal of end-of-life boats (ELB) in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Den- mark and the recycling and reuse of materials, environmental impacts and possible problems with dumping. As part of this project, a Nordic workshop on ELB was held in Stockholm, 3 December 2012; 50 partici- pants attended from the four countries.

The total number of boats, which has been estimated from surveys performed in each country, amounts to nearly 3 million leisure boats (Finland 750,000, Sweden 900,000, Norway 1,000,000, Denmark 250,000). This is roughly half of the total estimated number of European recreational vessels (6 million).1 Almost 20% are more than 40 years old, an indication that the problem of disposal is rising, which is in ac- cordance with the opinion common at the workshop.

It has not been possible to come up with reliable figures on how many boats are disposed of each year because the lack of registration requirements in any of the Nordic countries. None of them have a mandatory system for the registration of leisure boats. However, in some cases registration is needed for boat insurance. Boats are abandoned on land and dumped into the sea, but it has not been possible to estimate the extent to which this happens. The lack of or insufficient registration of leisure boats makes it difficult for the public and the authorities to trace owners to de- mand that the boat is removed and brought to a scrap dealer.

Today, none of the four countries has a nation-wide system for dealing with ELB; a private more nation-wide system initiative does exist in Finland. It is unclear which authority is responsible for ELB in any of the countries. The countries have differing views on whether worn out boats should be considered as household waste.

None of the Nordic countries have a system with incentives the collection and disposal of worn out boats, which means it must be done on the expense of the boat owner. The disposal problem has two parts: 1) abandoned boats and 2) future ELB.

pdf Eriksen et al. (2014). Plastic Pollution in the World’s Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea

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Eriksen-2014-Plastic Pollution in the World's.PDF

Eriksen et al. (2014). Plastic Pollution in the World’s Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea

Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world’s oceans from 24 expeditions (2007–2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N5680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N5891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic ,4.75 mm and meso- and macroplastic .4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove 4.75 mm plastic particles from the ocean surface.

pdf Gíslason et al. (2015). Plastic in the marine environment

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Gíslason-2015-Plastics in the marine environme.pdf

Gíslason et al. (2015). Plastic in the marine environment

Plastic debris in the marine environment is known to have serious negative impacts on marine resources and fisheries, as well as on the use of coastal areas for tourism and the public. It is of the utmost importance to minimize these impacts.The plastic debris has different origins, from microplastics increasingly used in cosmetics and other products to large plastic items and ghost nets. Plastics can have direct impact on animals, both through entanglement and ingestion, which will alter the biological and ecological performance of individuals. It also affects biota through leakage of harmful chemicals often contained in plastics or attached to them. Plastic debris can further have negative impacts on the experience of tourists, through damaged fishermen’s nets and equipment, and spoil catches.

The Environment Agency of Iceland hosted a conference on plastics in the marine environment in Reykjavík, Iceland on the 24th of September 2014. The conference aimed to give an overview of existing knowledge on the issue and to identify reasonable and effective measures to minimize plastic waste in the marine environment. Iceland holds the chairmanship of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2014. The conference was a part of Iceland’s chairmanship programme and was funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers. The Agenda of the conference consisted of a plenary session before lunch and two parallel sessions after lunch, Fisheries and plastic wastes and Microplastics from consumer goods, followed by a plenary session introducing the results from the parallel sessions and a panel discussion with participation of all the lecturers.

It is clear from the plenary session, the parallel sessions and the discussion that the lack of action cannot be blamed on lack of information or lack of available tools. Discussion points from the parallel sessions included “no more talking – time for action”.

Additionally it was repeated throughout the discussion in both sessions and the panel discussion that the problem lies in the way plastics are consumed and the way consumers relate to plastics as the material has become less durable and seemingly less valuable. At the same time our single- use/throw-away culture is seen as contributing to the problem.

pdf Gonzales Fernan et al. (2016). Riverine Litter Monitoring - Options and Recommendations

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Gonzales Fernan-2016-Riverine Litter Monitorin.pdf

Gonzales Fernan et al. (2016). Riverine Litter Monitoring - Options and Recommendations

Marine litter is an issue of global concern, as recognised by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). In order to establish programmes of measures that aim to reduce plastics and their possible impacts, sources of litter and their pathways to the marine environment need to be identified and quantified. Riverine litter input is estimated to be a major contributor to marine litter, but there is no comprehensive information about the amount of litter being transported through rivers to the sea. Furthermore, there are no harmonised methodologies for providing quantitative data for comparable assessments of riverine litter.

This technical report compiles the options for monitoring riverine litter and quantifying litter fluxes, focusing on anthropogenic litter. It includes the current scientific and technical background regarding litter in river systems, their flow regime and basic properties. The document aims to provide recommendations for monitoring approaches and methodologies. It also provides indications on the issues which need to be further developed in a collaborative approach.

An extensive literature review has been performed in order to identify the existing options for the monitoring of litter items in rivers. Different monitoring methods are used in two environmental compartments: river water bodies and riverbanks. For a river water body, the river water surface can be monitored by visual observation and image acquisition, while collection methodologies of the water column include the use of retaining structures and sampling using grids, nets and filtration systems (with different mesh sizes and openings) at different water depths. Riverbank monitoring comprises the observation and eventual collection of litter items and sediment samples from the riverbanks. Methodologies are described and technical details are reported whenever available.

As methodologies are further developed and basic research is ongoing, it is currently not possible to provide clear guidance on how to monitor riverine litter, though some initial recommendations can be made. General recommendations highlight the need for additional scientific knowledge, which should be made accessible to facilitate communication and coordination among key players in order to harmonise efforts and provide guidance at international level in a collaborative way. Knowledge gaps should be filled by analysing the outcome of these ongoing activities (the recommendations include a list of identified gaps). As there are no agreed monitoring methodologies at the international level, guidance on the monitoring of riverine litter is needed, including metadata requirements and reporting units. In order to quantify riverine litter input to the marine environment, monitoring methods have to provide data that can be related to river flow in order to be able to calculate litter fluxes (e.g. visual observation of the river water surface and collection method for the river water body).

pdf Jamieson et al. (2005). Endogenous reserve dynamics of northern Common Eiders wintering in Greenland

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Jamieson-2005-Endogenous reserve dynamics of n.pdf

Jamieson et al. (2005). Endogenous reserve dynamics of northern Common Eiders wintering in Greenland

Endogenous reserves influence both survival and reproduction of many waterfowl species, but little is known about reserve levels of most species during the nonbreeding season, particularly those wintering at high latitudes. We investigated whether age, sex, and season were related to carcass composition of northern common eiders (Somateria mollissima borealis) wintering in southwest Greenland during 1999–2002. Adults carried more lipid and protein than juveniles during all winters. Among both age classes, males and females had similar fat levels but males carried slightly more protein. There was no dramatic seasonal variation in lipid or protein content. This suggests that during the period of this study, these eiders did not experience large-scale nutritional shortfalls. As predicted, Greenlandic eiders carried more lipid reserves than eider populations wintering in more temperate environments. Contrary to prediction, there was little relation between reserve levels and photoperiod, ambient temperature, or hunting disturbance intensity. Our results suggest that both sexes are equally capable of dealing with nutritional deficits, and that juvenile birds are more prone to nutritional stress as evidenced by their consistently poorer body condition.

pdf Knowlton et al. (2012). Monitoring North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis entanglement rates: A 30 year retrospective

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Knowlton-2012-Monitoring North Atlantic right.pdf

Knowlton et al. (2012). Monitoring North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis entanglement rates: A 30 year retrospective

Entanglement in non-mobile fishing gear has been identified as one of the leading causes of mortality in North Atlantic right whales Eubalaena glacialis. To investigate this issue further, all available photographs of right whales taken from 1980 to 2009 were examined for evidence of entanglement with gear used in fisheries based on presence of rope or netting on the whale or scars inferred to have been caused by an encounter with rope. Photographs of 626 individual whales were assessed and 1032 unique entanglement events were documented. Of the 626 animals, 519 (82.9%) had been entangled at least once and 306 of the 519 (59.0%) had been entangled more than once. Males and females were entangled at similar rates. Juveniles were entangled at a higher rate than adults. On average, 25.9% of adequately photographed animals acquired new wounds or scars from fishing gear annually with no significant trend over time detected. However, the annual percentage of animals observed with rope on the body increased significantly during the study period, suggesting that it is becoming more difficult for whales to free themselves completely from fishing gear. Such high annual rates of entanglement remain a serious conservation concern for right whales because entanglements can have both lethal and sub-lethal effects. Federally required changes to fixed-gear fisheries in US waters have not reduced serious injuries and mortality to legally required levels. Here we show how documenting various annual rates of entanglement can monitor progress and impacts that fishing gear regula- tions may have on right whale recovery.

pdf Kooi et al. (2016). The effect of particle properties on the depth profile of buoyant plastics in the ocean

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Kooi et al. (2016). The effect of particle properties on the depth profile of buoyant plastics in the ocean

Most studies on buoyant microplastics in the marine environment rely on sea surface sampling. Consequently, microplastic amounts can be underestimated, as turbulence leads to vertical mixing. Models that correct for vertical mixing are based on limited data. In this study we report measurements of the depth profile of buoyant microplastics in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, from 0 to 5 m depth. Microplastics were separated into size classes (0.5–1.5 and 1.5–5.0 mm) and types (‘fragments’ and ‘lines’), and associated with a sea state. Microplastic concentrations decreased exponentially
with depth, with both sea state and particle properties affecting the steepness of the decrease. Concentrations approached zero within 5 m depth, indicating that most buoyant microplastics are present on or near the surface. Plastic rise velocities were also measured, and were found to differ significantly for different sizes and shapes. Our results suggest that (1) surface samplers such as manta trawls underestimate total buoyant microplastic amounts by a factor of 1.04–30.0 and (2) estimations of depth-integrated buoyant plastic concentrations should be done across different particle sizes and types. Our findings can assist with improving buoyant ocean plastic vertical mixing models, mass balance exercises, impact assessments and mitigation strategies.