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pdf Setala et al. (2017). Microplastics – A growing environmental risk. New business opportunities in combatting microplastics

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Setala-2017-Microplastics – a growing environm.pdf

Setala et al. (2017). Microplastics – A growing environmental risk. New business opportunities in combatting microplastics
No Abstract Available

pdf Sillanpaa et al. (2017). Release of polyester and cotton fibers from textiles in machine washings

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Sillanpaa-2017-Release of polyester and cotton.pdf

Sillanpaa et al. (2017). Release of polyester and cotton fibers from textiles in machine washings

Microplastics are widely spread in the environ- ment, which along with still increasing production have aroused concern of their impacts on environmental health. The objective of this study is to quantify the number and mass of two most common textile fibers discharged from sequential machine washings to sewers. The number and mass of microfibers released from polyester and cotton textiles in the first wash varied in the range 2.1 × 105 to 1.3 × 107 and 0.12 to 0.33% w/w, respectively. Amounts of released microfibers showed a decreasing trend in sequential washes. The annual emission of polyester and cotton microfibers from household washing machines was estimated to be 154,000 (1.0 × 1014) and 411,000 kg (4.9 × 1014) in Finland (population 5.5 × 106). Due to the high emission values and sorption capacities, the polyester and cotton microfibers may play an important role in the transport and fate of chemical pollutants in the aquatic environment.

pdf Sokolov (2013). Арктика: к проблеме накопленного экологического ущерба

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Sokolov-2013-Арктика_ к проблеме накопленного.pdf

Sokolov (2013). Арктика: к проблеме накопленного экологического ущерба
No Abstract Available

pdf Thevenon et al., IUCN (2014). Plastic Debris in the Ocean: The Characterization of Marine Plastics and their Environmental Impacts, Situation Analysis Report

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Thevenon-2014-Plastic Debris in the Ocean_ The.pdf

Thevenon et al., IUCN (2014). Plastic Debris in the Ocean: The Characterization of Marine Plastics and their Environmental Impacts, Situation Analysis Report

Plastic debris has now become the most serious problem affecting the marine environment, not only for coastal areas of developing countries that lack appropriate waste management infrastructures, but also for the world’s oceans as a whole because slowly degrading large plastic items generate microplastic (particles smaller than 1 to 5 mm) particles which spread over long distances by wind-driven ocean surface layer circulation.

Growing scientific and public awareness is fuelling global concern regarding the impact of plastic ingested by marine species and the accumulation of plastics in coastal and remote areas of oceans (in trash vortexes or gyres). Private and public initiatives, such as the volunteer beach cleanups and campaigns for removing beach debris, represent the major source of information concerning the amounts and types of marine litter. The regular cleaning by municipalities and public authorities to maintain beaches attractive to tourists engenders major economic costs.

It is now well recognized that drifting plastic debris has several adverse effects on marine species and ecosystems. However, there is still a lack of precise knowledge about the quantity, sources, transport, accumulation and fate of plastics in the oceans. The most visible and disturbing impact of marine plastic pollution is the ingestion, suffocation and entanglement of hundreds of marine species. Floating plastics, which are presently the most abundant items of marine litter, also contribute considerably to the transport of non-indigenous (alien) marine species thereby threatening marine biodiversity and the food web. These floating particles accumulate toxic pollutants on their surface during their long-residence time in polluted seawater and can therefore represent a concentrated source of environmental pollution, or serve as a vector for toxic pollutants that accumulate in the food webs (bio-accumulation of contaminants).

The globally emerging environmental, economic and health risks related to plastic pollution require immediate international attention. It is time to take regional- and global-level actions against the entry of plastics into the ocean. There is also an urgent need to monitor the type and quantity of marine plastics using standardized methodologies as well as to better assess the impacts of plastic pollution on marine environments, species and ecosystems. Environmental monitoring data will help to set up local and global action programmes that need to be effective from a long-term perspective so as to reduce the entry of marine plastic litter and their redistribution within the world’s oceans.

pdf Van Franeker (1985). Plastic Ingestion in the North Atlantic Fulmar

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van Franeker-1985-Plastic ingestion in the Nor.pdf

Van Franeker (1985). Plastic Ingestion in the North Atlantic Fulmar

Fulmars found dead on the Dutch coast, and fulmars collectedin arctic colonies have considerable quantities of plastic in their stomachs. The average number of plastic items ingested is almost twelve in Dutch fulmars, and four to five in arctic fulmars. User-plastics and industrial plastics are about equally abundant. Ingestion of user-plastics suggests a stronger impact of toxic chemicals from plastics than generally assumed.

pdf Van Franeker et al. (2011). Monitoring plastic ingestion by the northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis in the North Sea

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van Franeker-2011-Monitoring plastic ingestion.pdf

Van Franeker et al. (2011). Monitoring plastic ingestion by the northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis in the North Sea

The abundance of plastics in stomachs of northern fulmars from the North Sea is used in the OSPAR Ecological Quality Objective (EcoQO) for marine litter. The preliminary EcoQO defines acceptable ecological quality as the situation where no more than 10% of fulmars exceed a critical level of 0.1 g of plastic in the stomach. During 2003e2007, 95% of 1295 fulmars sampled in the North Sea had plastic in the stomach (on average 35 pieces weighing 0.31 g) and the critical level of 0.1 g of plastic was exceeded by 58% of birds, with regional variations ranging from 48 to 78%. Long term data for the Netherlands since the 1980s show a decrease of industrial, but an increase of user plastics, with shipping and fisheries as the main sources. The EcoQO is now also used as an indicator for Good Environmental Status in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

pdf Van Franeker et al. (2013). Fulmar Litter EcoQO monitoring along Dutch and North Sea coasts - Update 2010 and 2011

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van Franeker-2013-Fulmar Litter EcoQO monitori.pdf

Van Franeker et al. (2013). Fulmar Litter EcoQO monitoring along Dutch and North Sea coasts - Update 2010 and 2011
No Abstract Available

pdf Van Franeker, OSPAR Commission (2017). Plastic Particles in Fulmar Stomachs in the North Sea

Tagged in Microplastics 23 downloads

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van Franeker-2017-Plastic Particles in Fulmar.pdf

Van Franeker, OSPAR Commission (2017). Plastic Particles in Fulmar Stomachs in the North Sea

Litter is widespread in the marine environment and is harmful to wildlife and the ecosystem. OSPAR aims to substantially reduce the amount marine litter in the OSPAR Maritime Area by 2020 to levels where properties and quantities do not cause harm to the marine environment. The quantity of plastics ingested by marine wildlife mainly reflects the abundance of floating litter in their environment.

OSPAR monitors and assesses plastics in the stomachs of northern fulmars as one of its indicators of environmental quality. Fulmars are abundant and widespread seabirds known to regularly ingest litter, with nearly all individuals having at least some plastic in their stomachs. Although fulmars forage near the water surface, their stomachs may also contain items from deeper water or items that may be indirectly ingested through their prey.

The fulmar Indicator Assessment approach is based on a previous OSPAR Ecological Quality Objective (EcoQO). The monitoring programme uses corpses of beached birds or individuals accidentally killed. OSPAR has a long-term goal of less than 10% of fulmars exceeding a level of 0.1 g of plastic in their stomachs. Research methods and results have been published in reports and peer-reviewed scientific literature as well as specific OSPAR Guidelines. This indicator is currently used only in the Greater North Sea. However it could be suitable for implementation in Arctic Waters and Celtic Seas and has already been used in fulmar studies outside the OSPAR Maritime Area, in the North Atlantic and North Pacific.

pdf Van Sebille et al. (2016). The ocean plastic pollution challenge: towards solutions in the UK

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van Sebille-2016-The ocean plastic pollution c.pdf

Van Sebille et al. (2016). The ocean plastic pollution challenge: towards solutions in the UK

Plastics are a major source of global marine pollution. Once plastic particles reach the marine environment, wind and global ocean currents can spread them around the world. As a result, plastics are dispersed across all oceans, and can be found in remote locations such as the Arctic, Southern Ocean and deep oceans1,2. Ocean plastic pollution is an alarming issue due to
its persistence, complexity, steady growth and the pervasive impacts it has on all aspects of ecosystems. The problem requires holistic environmental remediation solutions at a global scale.

Ocean plastic pollution has received increased attention in recent years. There have been prominent advances in primary research as well as amendments in EU legislation, notably the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. High-level statements such as the Berlin declaration in 20133 and the G7 Leaders’ statement in 20154 singled out ocean plastic pollution, helping to push this issue up the international agenda. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) leads a programme on marine litter, and is supported by, amongst others, the Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP).

This paper provides a summary of the scientific knowledge to date on the nature of the ocean plastic pollution challenge, current legislation and solutions from a UK perspective, and some reflections on what actions are needed now.

pdf Wouter (2017). Memo: The Arctic Marine Litter Action Plan Project (AMLAP)

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Wouter-2017-Memo_ The Arctic Marine Litter Act.pdf

Wouter (2017). Memo: The Arctic Marine Litter Action Plan Project (AMLAP)
No Abstract Available

pdf Xanthos et al. (2017). International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads): A review

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Xanthos-2017-International policies to reduce.pdf

Xanthos et al. (2017). International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads): A review

Marine plastic pollution has been a growing concern for decades. Single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads) are a significant source of this pollution. Although research outlining environmental, social, and economic impacts of marine plastic pollution is growing, few studies have examined policy and legislative tools to reduce plastic pollution, particularly single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads). This paper reviews current international market-based strategies and policies to reduce plastic bags and microbeads. While policies to reduce microbeads began in 2014, interventions for plastic bags began much earlier in 1991. However, few studies have documented or measured the effectiveness of these reduction strategies. Recommendations to further reduce single-use plastic marine pollution include: (i) research to evaluate effectiveness of bans and levies to ensure policies are having positive impacts on marine environments; and (ii) education and outreach to reduce consumption of plastic bags and microbeads at source.