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pdf Löhr et al. (2017). Solutions for Global Marine Litter Pollution

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Löhr-2017-Solutions for global marine litter p.pdf

Löhr et al. (2017). Solutions for Global Marine Litter Pollution

Since the 1950s the amount of plastics in the marine environment has increased dramatically. Worldwide there is a growing concern about the risks and possible adverse effects of (micro)plastics. This paper reflects on the sources and effects of marine litter and the effects of policies and other actions taken worldwide. Current knowledge offers a solid basis for effective action. Yet, so far the effects of policies and other initiatives are still largely insufficient. The search for appropriate responses could be based on possible interventions and profound understanding of the context specific factors for success. Moreover, the scope, timeframe and dynamics of all initiatives are distinctly different and orchestration at all levels, in close cooperation with one another is currently lacking.

pdf Lydersen et al. (1985). Aspects of vertebrate feeding in the marine ecosystem in Hornsund, Svalbard

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Lydersen-1985-Aspects of vertebrate feeding in.pdf

Lydersen et al. (1985). Aspects of vertebrate feeding in the marine ecosystem in Hornsund, Svalbard

Stomach content from 171 vertebrates from Hornsund collected between September 7th and October 5th 1984 was analysed. Stomachs were collected from 2 species of fish (shorthorn sculpin Myxo­cephalus scorpius and striped seasnail Liparis liparis) ,8 speeies of birds (black guillemot Cepphus grylle, little auk, Alle alle, puffin Fratercula arctica, Brunnich's guillemot Uria lomvia, fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus and eider Somateria mollissima), and 2 species of seals (ringed seal Phoca hispida and bearded seal Erignathus barbatus). Simultanously plankton and benthos were collected from the Hornsund area to get an idea of what was available as food for the vertebrates investegated. 
Arctic cod Boerogadus saida and the amphipod Themisto libel­ lula were the main prey speeies of black guillemots, little auks, puffins, Brunnich's guillemots, kittiwakes and ringed seaIs. Fulmars mainly preyed upon the squid Gonatus fabrici and the polychaet Nereis irrorata, and eiders preyed mainy on bivalves and the amphipod Gammarellus homari.G.homari and Gammarus ocean­ icus were the most important prey speeies of striped seasnail, while the shorthorn sculpins mainly preyed upon G.homari and Anonyx sarsi. Glaucous gulls had many different preys on their menue, none of which seem to dominate. Only one bearded seal stomach with content was available for this study.
It seems like the food base in Hornsund during the study period is inadequate for all the birds living there. They there­ fore either have to search for food outside Hornsund in the open sea, or find small scale planktonic aggregations caused by hydrological phenomenon within the fiord. Most ringed seals probably leave Hornsund part of the year to feed in other areas.
A food web was constucted based on the knowledge of the preys of the different predators, and finally a clusteranalysis was made to assess the degree different predators utilize the same groups of prey.

pdf Lymarev (2017). ПРОБЛЕМЫ НАКОПЛЕНИЯ И УТИЛИЗАЦИИ РАЗЛИЧНЫХ ОТХОДОВ НА ТЕРРИТОРИИ АРКТИКИ

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Lymarev-2017-Проблемы накопления и утилизации.pdf

Lymarev (2017).  ПРОБЛЕМЫ НАКОПЛЕНИЯ И УТИЛИЗАЦИИ РАЗЛИЧНЫХ ОТХОДОВ НА ТЕРРИТОРИИ АРКТИКИ
No Abstract Available

pdf Maes et al. (2018). Below the surface: Twenty-five years of seafloor litter monitoring in coastal seas of North West Europe (1992–2017)

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Maes-2018-Below the surface_ Twenty-five years.pdf

Maes et al. (2018).  Below the surface: Twenty-five years of seafloor litter monitoring in coastal seas of North West Europe (1992–2017)

Marine litter presents a global problem, with increasing quantities documented in recent decades. The distribution and abundance of marine litter on the seafloor off the United Kingdom's (UK) coasts were quantified during 39 independent scientific surveys conducted between 1992 and 2017. Widespread distribution of litter items, especially plastics, were found on the seabed of the North Sea, English Channel, Celtic Sea and Irish Sea. High variation in abundance of litter items, ranging from 0 to 1835 pieces km−2 of seafloor, was observed. Plastic tems such as bags, bottles and fishing related debris were commonly observed across all areas. Over the entire 25-year period (1992–2017), 63% of the 2461 trawls contained at least one plastic litter item. There was no significant temporal trend in the percentage of trawls containing any or total plastic litter items across the long-term datasets. Statistically significant trends, however, were observed in specific plastic litter categories only. These trends were all positive except for a negative trend in plastic bags in the Greater North Sea - suggesting that behavioural and legislative changes could reduce the problem of marine litter within decades.

pdf Maes, OSPAR Commission (2017). Composition and Spatial Distribution of Litter on the Seafloor

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Maes-2017-Composition and Spatial Distribution.pdf

Maes, OSPAR Commission (2017). Composition and Spatial Distribution of Litter on the Seafloor
Marine litter is a global problem, with increasing quantities of litter documented in recent decades. The abundance of seafloor litter is influenced by anthropogenic inputs, including litter transported by rivers and ocean currents, which can redistribute this material over long distances. Marine litter is therefore a transboundary problem.
Marine animals can ingest or become entangled in litter (e.g. discarded fishing gear, strapping bands) on or near the seafloor. This could result in death or injury, for example through suffocation or starvation. Plastic items are potential vectors for contaminants and can also scour or smother the seafloor. This can impact on fragile benthic habitats, reducing photosynthesis and preventing the movement of animals, gases and nutrients. Marine litter also acts as a vector for invasive species, transporting non-indigenous organisms into new areas where they can out compete or prey upon native organisms.
Litter on the seafloor has been studied in both coastal waters and the deep sea. The presence of large amounts of plastic litter has been reported on the European continental shelf. Benthic trawl surveys are a practical way to monitor seafloor litter (on the continental shelf), because they are already in use for fish stock assessments, cover a wide area of seafloor and collect a sufficient quantity of litter for analysis.

pdf Matsumura et al. (1990). MOVEMENTS OF FLOATING DEBRIS IN THE NORTH PACIFIC

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Matsumura-1990-Movements of floating debris in.PDF

Matsumura et al. (1990).  MOVEMENTS OF FLOATING DEBRIS IN THE NORTH PACIFIC

A net fragments tracking experiment and numerical simulations using surface current data set (SCUDS) data were conducted to estimate movements of floating debris in the North Pacific.

Six driftnet sets ( 4 0 tans each) were placed in the area lat.39'N, long.155"E. Locations of the net sets and sea surface temperatures were collected and transmitted every day using the Argos system. Data were taken about six times a day for 4 months. At termination of the net drifting experiment, the net sets with buoys were retrieved and new Argos buoys with curtain drogues were released at the points of retrieval tocontinue the surface current tracking.

The buoys moved predominantly eastward, although each track line was complicated,particularly in areas near the Oyashio Front. It is considered that the movements of the nets were mainly due to surface currents and that direct influence from wind was negligible, because the underwater portion was very large (a driftnet 2,000 m long although it had formed a mass) compared with the above-water portion of the buoy. Average speed was estimated based on the buoy movements and ranged from 10 km/day to 20 km/day. Movements of floating debris in the North Pacific were simulated using a computer model based on SCUDS.

Results showed the existence of two large-scaleeddies in the eastern and western parts of the mid-Pacific,and floating debris are through to accumulate in these areas.

pdf Muzaffar (2009). HELMINTHS OF MURRES (ALCIDAE: URIA SPP.): MARKERS OF ECOLOGICAL CHANGE IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

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Muzaffar-2009-Helminths of Murres (Alcidae_ Ur.pdf

Muzaffar (2009).  HELMINTHS OF MURRES (ALCIDAE: URIA SPP.): MARKERS OF ECOLOGICAL CHANGE IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

Seabirds are prominent components of the North Atlantic marine environment, and their parasites offer an insight into seabird ecologic interactions. Parasites also provide vital information on historic biogeography of host associations and thus may reveal broad changes in the marine ecosystem. Helminths of Common Murres (Uria aalge) and Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia) in the northwest Atlantic marine environment were assessed to determine parasite community composition and changes in their parasite fauna since the 1960s. In total, 623 helminths, representing Digenea, Eucestoda, Nematoda, and Acanthocephala, were recorded from 100 Common and Thick-billed Murres collected from breeding colonies along the coasts of Labrador, Newfoundland, and Greenland. Parasite communities differed from those reported from the 1960s, and over 85% of the specimens were tapeworms (mostly in the genus Alcataenia). The high prevalence (26%) and mean intensity (14.6) of A. longicervica, a Pacific species recorded recently from Newfoundland, indicates that this tapeworm was established in the Atlantic by 2006. Significantly higher A. longicervica prevalence (.53%) and mean intensity (27.3) in the murres from Greenland and in wintering murres compared to murres from breeding colonies in Labrador and Newfoundland suggest a mechanism for the introduction of this species to the Atlantic. Periodic mixing of populations of Thysanoessa species, the euphausiid intermediate host of Alcataenia, occurs along the seas adjacent to the North Pacific and those along the Siberian Arctic. The mixing of infected Thysanoessa likely exposed North Atlantic and Arctic murres, which are geographically isolated from Pacific murres, to this tapeworm. The greater prevalence of A. longicervica in Thick-billed Murres was consistent with diet analyses, which revealed a greater proportion of euphausiids.

pdf Nakki et al. (2017). Bioturbation transports secondary microplastics to deeper layers in soft marine sediments of the northern Baltic Sea

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Nakki-2017-Bioturbation transports secondary m.pdf

Nakki et al. (2017). Bioturbation transports secondary microplastics to deeper layers in soft marine sediments of the northern Baltic Sea

Microplastics (MPs) are observed to be present on the seafloor ranging from coastal areas to deep seas. Because bioturbation alters the distribution of natural particles on inhabited soft bottoms, a mesocosm experiment with common benthic invertebrates was conducted to study their effect on the distribution of secondary MPs (different-sized pieces of fishing line < 1 mm). During the study period of three weeks, the benthic community increased MP concentration in the depth of 1.7–5.1 cm in the sediment. The experiment revealed a clear vertical gradient in MP distribution with their abundance being highest in the uppermost parts of the sediment and decreasing with depth. The Baltic clam Macoma balthica was the only study animal that ingested MPs. This study highlights the need to further examine the vertical distribution of MPs in natural sediments to reliably assess their abundance on the seafloor as well as their potential impacts on benthic communities.

pdf Nemoto et al. (1963). STONES AND OTHER ALIENS IN THE STOMACHS OF SPERM WHALES IN THE BERING SEA

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Nemoto-1963-Stones and other aliens in the sto.pdf

Nemoto et al. (1963).  STONES AND OTHER ALIENS IN THE STOMACHS OF SPERM WHALES IN THE BERING SEA
No Abstract Available

pdf Obbard (2018). Microplastics in Polar Regions: The role of long range transport

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Obbard-2018-Microplastics in Polar Regions_ Th.pdf

Obbard (2018). Microplastics in Polar Regions: The role of long range transport

Microplastics (particles <5 mm) pose a threat to the marine ecosystem that is disproportionate to their tiny size. They have been found in high numbers in sea water and sediments, and are interacting with organisms and the environment in a variety of ways. Recently their presence has been confirmed in Polar water, sediment, and sea ice. We review the recent literature on microplastic distribution and transport in marine environments, primarily in the Northern Hemisphere, summarize current understanding, identify gaps in understanding, and suggest future research priorities.

pdf OSPAR Commission (2017). Beach Litter - Abundance, Composition and Trends

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Fleet-2017-Beach Litter - Abundance, Compositi.pdf

OSPAR Commission (2017). Beach Litter - Abundance, Composition and Trends
No Abstract Available

pdf Pichel et al. (2012). GhostNet marine debris survey in the Gulf of Alaska – Satellite guidance and aircraft observations

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Pichel-2012-GhostNet marine debris survey in t.pdf

Pichel et al. (2012). GhostNet marine debris survey in the Gulf of Alaska – Satellite guidance and aircraft observations

Marine debris, particularly debris that is composed of lost or abandoned fishing gear, is recognized as a serious threat to marine life, vessels, and coral reefs. The goal of the GhostNet project is the detection of derelict nets at sea through the use of weather and ocean models, drifting buoys and satellite imagery to locate convergent areas where nets are likely to collect, followed by airborne surveys with trained observers and remote sensing instruments to spot individual derelict nets. These components of Ghost- Net were first tested together in the field during a 14-day marine debris survey of the Gulf of Alaska in July and August 2003. Model, buoy, and satellite data were used in flight planning. A manned aircraft sur- vey with visible and IR cameras and a LIDAR instrument located debris in the targeted locations, includ- ing 102 individual pieces of debris of anthropogenic or terrestrial origin.

pdf Purser et al. (2013). Local variation in the distribution of benthic megafauna species associated with cold-water coral reefs on the Norwegian margin

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Purser-2013-Local variation in the distributio.pdf

Purser et al. (2013).  Local variation in the distribution of benthic megafauna species associated with cold-water coral reefs on the Norwegian margin

The spatial variability in the mix of species making up Cold-water coral reef communities is not well known. In this study abundances of a selection of megafauna (Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata, Paragorgia arborea, Primnoa resedaeformis, Mycale lingua, Geodia baretti, Acesta excavata and fish) were quantified throughout 9 manned submersible video transects from 3 reef complexes (Røst Reef, Sotbakken Reef and Traena Reef) on the Norwegian margin. Substrate type (coral structure, rubble, exposed hardground or soft sediment) was also recorded. Variations in the densities of these fauna (with respect to both reef complex and substrate type) were investigated, with spatial covariance between species assessed.

For the majority of fauna investigated, densities varied by both reef and substrate. Spatial covariance indicated that some species may be utilising similar habitat niches, but that minor environmental differences may favour colonisation by one or other at a particular reef. Fish densities were generally higher in regions with biogenic substrate (coral structure and coral rubble substrates) than in areas of soft or hardground substrate. Further, fish were more abundant at the northerly Sotbakken Reef at time of study than elsewhere. Community structure varied by reef, and therefore management plans aimed at maintaining the biodiversity of reef ecosystems on the Norwegian margin should take this lack of homogeneity into account.

pdf Raum Suryan et al. (2009). Entanglement of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in marine debris: Identifying causes and finding solutions

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Raum-Suryan-2009-Entanglement of Steller sea l.pdf

Raum Suryan et al. (2009). Entanglement of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in marine debris: Identifying causes and finding solutions

Entanglement in marine debris is a contributing factor in Steller sea lion (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus) injury and mortality. We quantified SSL entanglement by debris type, sex and age class, entanglement inci- dence, and estimated population level effects. Surveys of SSL haul-outs were conducted from 2000– 2007 in Southeast Alaska and northern British Columbia. We recorded 386 individuals of all age classes as being either entangled in marine debris or having ingested fishing gear. Packing bands were the most common neck entangling material (54%), followed by rubber bands (30%), net (7%), rope (7%), and mono- filament line (2%). Ingested fishing gear included salmon fishery flashers (lures: 80%), longline gear (12%), hook and line (4%), spinners/spoons (2%), and bait hooks (2%). Entanglement incidence was 0.26% (SD = 0.0064, n = 69 sites). ‘‘Lose the Loop!” Simple procedures such as cutting entangling loops of syn- thetic material and eliminating the use of packing bands can prevent entanglements.

pdf Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2012). Impacts of Marine Debris on Biodiversity: Current Status and Potential Solutions

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Secretariat of-2012-Impacts of Marine Debris o.pdf

Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2012). Impacts of Marine Debris on Biodiversity: Current Status and Potential Solutions

Marine habitats throughout the world are contaminated with man-made items of debris and solid waste. This report reviews the current state of knowledge of the effects of marine debris, and provides a preliminary assessment of the impact on ecosystems and biodiversity. It seeks to inform the Parties and other participants in the CBD on the nature of this emerging issue and potential strategies to address it, following discussion the discussion at the 16th Meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical, and Technological Affairs (SBSTTA) of the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)1. Section 1 of the report provides a systematic assessment of research to date in the fields of marine biology and ecology and examines the evidence of its effects on marine species and ecosystems. Section two addresses potential solutions, drawing on waste management experience and practices, and providing examples of approaches that can be used to reduce land- based sources of marine debris.

pdf Setala et al. (2014). Ingestion and transfer of microplastics in the planktonic food web

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Setala-2014-Ingestion and transfer of micropla.pdf

Setala et al. (2014). Ingestion and transfer of microplastics in the planktonic food web

Experiments were carried out with different Baltic Sea zooplankton taxa to scan their potential to ingest plastics. Mysid shrimps, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, polychaete larvae and ciliates were exposed to 10 mm fluorescent polystyrene microspheres. These experiments showed ingestion of microspheres in all taxa studied. The highest percentage of individuals with ingested spheres was found in pelagic polychaete larvae, Marenzelleria spp. Experiments with the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the mysid shrimp Neomysis integer showed egestion of microspheres within 12 h. Food web transfer experiments were done by offering zooplankton labelled with ingested microspheres to mysid shrimps. Microscopy observations of mysid intestine showed the presence of zooplankton prey and microspheres after 3 h incubation. This study shows for the first time the potential of plastic microparticle transfer via planktonic organisms from one trophic level (mesozooplankton) to a higher level (macrozooplankton). The impacts of plastic transfer and possible accumulation in the food web need further investigations.

pdf Setala et al. (2016). Distribution and abundance of surface water microlitter in the Baltic Sea: A comparison of two sampling methods

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Setala-2016-Distribution and abundance of surf.pdf

Setala et al. (2016). Distribution and abundance of surface water microlitter in the Baltic Sea: A comparison of two sampling methods

Two methods for marine microlitter sampling were compared in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea: manta trawl (333 μm) and a submersible pump (300 or 100 μm). Concentrations of microlitter (microplastics, combustion particles, non-synthetic fibres) in the samples collected with both methods and filter sizes remained <-10 particles m−3. The pump with 100 μm filter gave higher microlitter concentrations compared to manta trawl or pump with 300 μm filter. Manta sampling covers larger areas, but is potentially subjected to contamina- tion during sample processing and does not give precise volumetric values. Using a submerged pump allows method controls, use of different filter sizes and gives exact volumetric measures. Both devices need relatively calm weather for operation. The choice of the method in general depends on the aim of the study. For monitoring environmentally relevant size fractions of microlitter the use of 100 μm or smaller mesh size is recommended for the Baltic Sea.

pdf Setala et al. (2016). Feeding type affects microplastic ingestion in a coastal invertebrate community

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Setala-2016-Feeding type affects microplastic.pdf

Setala et al. (2016). Feeding type affects microplastic ingestion in a coastal invertebrate community

Marine litter is one of the problems marine ecosystems face at present, coastal habitats and food webs being the most vulnerable as they are closest to the sources of litter. A range of animals (bivalves, free swimming crustaceans and benthic, deposit-feeding animals), of a coastal community of the northern Baltic Sea were exposed to relatively low concentrations of 10 μm microbeads. The experiment was carried out as a small scale mesocosm study to mimic natural habitat. The beads were ingested by all animals in all experimental concentrations (5, 50 and 250 beads mL−1). Bivalves (Mytilus trossulus, Macoma balthica) contained significantly higher amounts of beads compared with the other groups. Free-swimming crustaceans ingested more beads compared with the benthic animals that were feeding only on the sediment surface. Ingestion of the beads was concluded to be the result of particle concentration, feeding mode and the encounter rate in a patchy environment.

pdf Setala et al. (2016). Marine Litter: The Gulf of Finland Assessment

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Setala-2016-Marine Litter.pdf

Setala et al. (2016). Marine Litter: The Gulf of Finland Assessment

This assessment on the environmental state of the Gulf of Finland in 1996 – 2014 was produced by together over 100 scientists from Estonia, Finland, and Russia in the context of the Gulf of Finland Year 2014. The thematic year aimed at – and succeeded in – giving additional value for the protection and restoration of the Gulf of Finland environment by enhancing political presence and interaction between the private sector, decision-makers, and citizens.

This assessment concentrates on the past development and the current state of the Gulf of Finland environment and pressures affecting it. The themes include climate in the Gulf of Finland area, Gulf of Finland physics, geology and geodiversity, eutrophication, hazardous substances, biodiversity, fishes and fisheries, non- indigenous species, marine litter, underwater soundscape, maritime traffic and its safety, and environmental valuation. Each chapter also delivers expert opinions and recommendations for the future.