Folder 2019: 11th Arctic Council Ministerial meeting, Rovaniemi (Finland)

Documents

pdf Underwater Noise in the Arctic: A State of Knowledge report

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Underwater noise report.pdf

Underwater Noise in the Arctic: A State of Knowledge report
Due to the recent activities on this topic, PAME decided to complete this State of Knowledge Review on Underwater Noise in the Arctic in order to get a baseline understanding of underwater noise in Arctic regions, including ambient sound levels, underwater noise created by anthropogenic activities, and impacts of underwater noise on marine life, including marine mammals, fish, and invertebrates.

This report is intended to be used as an overview of the current scientific knowledge on underwater noise in the Arctic. However, in the undertaking of this work, it has become clear that there are many gaps in this knowledge which, if addressed, could lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of underwater noise on species of interest. That being said, this review will serve as a useful basis for which to consider where to focus future work and resources in both studying the issue of underwater noise in the Arctic context and in considering possible approaches in terms for mitigation strategies in reducing the effects or impacts of underwater noise on the Arctic marine environment and marine species.

pdf 2nd reporting on progress/implementation of the 2015-2025 Arctic Marine Strategic Plan (AMSP)

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AMSP Progress report.pdf

2nd reporting on progress/implementation of the 2015-2025 Arctic Marine Strategic Plan (AMSP)
This represents the 2nd status reporting of the AMSP strategic actions and is organized in accordance with the AMSP Implementation Plan in two-year implementation periods, corresponding to the rotation of the chairmanship of the Arctic Council. The aim of the status reporting is to provide a structured approach that tracks progress on developments as it related to the AMSP's forty strategic actions over the next 10 years among the Arctic Council working groups with overall guidance from the SAOs.

pdf Desktop study on Marine Litter, including microplastics, in the Arctic

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Desktop Study.pdf

Desktop study on Marine Litter, including microplastics, in the Arctic
PAME conducted the “Desktop Study on Marine Litter, including Microplastics in the Arctic” as part of the first phase of a Marine Litter Project included in the 2017-2019 Work Plan.

The Desktop Study improves our understanding of the status and impacts of marine litter, including microplastics, in the Arctic region. This kind of compilation has not previously been done for the entire Arctic region and is by no means comprehensive.

The development of the Desktop Study was driven by the need to better understand the state of knowledge of marine litter in the Arctic. The objectives of the Desktop Study are to:
  • evaluate the scope of marine litter in the Arctic and its effects on the Arctic marine environment;
  • enhance knowledge and awareness of marine litter in the Arctic;
  • enhance cooperation by the eight Arctic States to reduce negative impacts of marine litter on the Arctic marine environment; and
  • contribute to the prevention and/or reduction of marine litter pollution in the Arctic and its impact on marine organisms, habitats, public health and safety, and to reduce the socioeconomic costs litter causes.

pdf Guidelines for Implementing an Ecosystem Approach to Management of Arctic Marine Ecosystems

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EA Guidelines.pdf

Guidelines for Implementing an Ecosystem Approach to Management of Arctic Marine Ecosystems
The concept of the Ecosystem Approach to management (EA) has been around for at least 30 years and has been extensively discussed, elaborated and developed within national and international fora. The Convention on Biological Diversity adopted a Guidance for the Ecosystem Approach in 2000 at its 5th Conference of the Parties (CBD COP V/6)1. The EA was adopted as an overarching principle and approach by Arctic Council Ministers in 2004 as part of the Arctic Marine Strategic Plan (AMSP).

In 2011, the Ministers established an expert group on Arctic ecosystem-based management (EBM), which reviewed the EA (or EBM) concept2 and provided a definition of EA along with principles and recommendations that were adopted as part of the Kiruna Declaration in 2013. In Iqaluit in 2015, and in Fairbanks in 2017, the Arctic Council Ministers recognized the need for EA and requested and encouraged the development of practical guidelines for EA implementation in the Arctic.

pdf Meaningful Engagement of Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities in Marine Activities (MEMA): Part II - Findings for Policy Makers

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Meaningful Engagement of Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities in Marine Activities (MEMA): Part II - Findings for Policy Makers
Initially, the MEMA project team compiled an extensive database and held two workshops on the project. MEMA’s Part I report, published in May 2017, brought all the disparate Arctic Council recommendations and statements together in one place for the first time.

For this Part II report, the project team’s analysis focused on hundreds of documents related to the engagement of Indigenous peoples and local communities. These came from the Arctic Council, Indigenous peoples and local communities, industry and government.

Several non-endorsed analytical background documents and a workshop report supported the development of this Part II report, too. This report also features the wisdom of five guest authors who have much experience in meaningful engagement with Indigenous peoples and local communities. Their views and project proponent perspectives drive home the essence of building trust with community members and conducting meaningful engagement. The audience for this Part II report includes the Arctic Council, governments, Indigenous peoples and local communities, industry, non-governmental organizations and researchers.

pdf PAME 2019-2021 Work Plan

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PAME 2019-2021 Work Plan.pdf

PAME 2019-2021 Work Plan
The purpose of the PAME Work Plan is to provide a framework for PAME´s work related to the protection of the Arctic marine environment for every two year working period.

PAME‘s Working Group activities are based on its mandate to address policy and non-emergency pollution prevention and control measures related to the protection of the Arctic marine environment from both land and sea-based activities. These measures include coordinated action programs, assessments and guidelines, complementing existing legal arrangements.

The PAME Working Group provides a unique forum for collaboration on a wide range of Arctic marine environment issues and consists of National Representatives from the Arctic Council states responsible for its work in their respective countries and Permanent Participants organizations representing Arctic indigenous peoples. Additionally, the Arctic Council working groups, accredited observers and other relevant organizations contribute to the on-going work of the PAME Working Group. A Work Plan is issued biannually.

pdf PAME 2017-2019 PAME Achievements Report

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PAME Achievements report 2017-2019.pdf

PAME 2017-2019 PAME Achievements Report
PAME’s work has proceeded in accordance with relevant activities captured in PAME’s biennial work plan as approved by the Arctic Council, including implementation of certain Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment (AMSA) recommendations, and policy follow-up on other assessments and reports of the Arctic Council.

PAME cooperates actively with the other Arctic Council working groups (WGs) in an effort to contribute to improved efficiency and effectiveness of the Arctic Council. Further, PAME works substantively with Arctic inhabitants, including indigenous peoples, to provide a unique forum for collaboration on a wide range of activities directed towards protection of the Arctic marine environment.

pdf Report on the environmental, economic, technical and practical aspects of the use by ships in the Arctic of alternative fuels

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Alternative fuels in the Arctic (Norway-WWF) March 2019_final.pdf

Report on the environmental, economic, technical and practical aspects of the use by ships in the Arctic of alternative fuels
Shipping activities in the Arctic impacts on climate change, health and the environment. Introducing alternative fuels in arctic shipping could significantly reduce emissions and impacts, as well as risk associated with the use and carriage of heavy fuel oil (HFO).

Globally, alternative fuels are emerging as a viable option to oil-based fuels. There are currently 135 LNG powered vessels sailing, and a further 135 confirmed newbuilds. Biofuels and methanol are available in certain ports and used in nice applications. Fully electrical ferries are now in use, particularly in the Norwegian domestic ferry sector, with phasing in of more than 60 battery electric ferries over the next few years. Hybrid electric ships are emerging in the short sea segment for offshore and passenger ships/ferries. Hydrogen fuel cell powered ships are planned for first commercial application 2021.

On behalf of PAME, DNV GL has in this report assessed alternative fuels and technologies for potential arctic use. The work is funded by “Funds for Arctic Environmental Cooperation” provided by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign affairs. Co-leads for PAME; Norway and WWF.

pdf Arctic Shipping Best Practice Information Forum Status Report

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Arctic Shipping Best Practice Information Forum Progress Report_.pdf

Arctic Shipping Best Practice Information Forum Status Report
PAME’s establishment of the Arctic Shipping Best Practice Information Forum is in response to the newly adopted International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (Polar Code) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). IMO has adopted the Polar Code by means of amendments to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), and the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW).

The Polar Code entered into force on 1 January 2017 and is intended to cover the full range of shipping-related matters relevant to navigation in waters surrounding the two poles – ship design, construction and equipment; operational and training concerns; search and rescue; and, equally important, the protection of the unique environment and eco-systems of the Polar Regions.

The aim of the Forum is to raise awareness of the Polar Code’s provisions amongst all those involved in or potentially affected by Arctic marine operations and to facilitate the exchange of information and best practices between the Forum participants on specific shipping topics, including but not limited to; hydrography, voyage planning, polar waters operations manuals, and industry guidelines on Arctic operations.

A publicly accessible web-portal has been created with information specific to each chapter of the Polar Code - www.arcticshippingforum.is. Forum participation is open to Arctic States, Permanent Participants and Arctic Council Observers as well as any widely-recognized professional organization dedicated to improving safe and environmentally sound marine operations in the Arctic as demonstrated by expertise and experience in Arctic shipping and/or related issues.

pdf Arctic Ship Traffic Data Project Status Report

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ASTD- Progress Report.pdf

Arctic Ship Traffic Data Project Status Report
PAME's Arctic Ship Traffic Data (ASTD) project has been developed in response to a growing need to collect and distribute accurate, reliable, and up-to-date information on shipping activities in the Arctic. To develop the ASTD System was an overarching goal which led to its launch in February 2019.

This project is a significant step by PAME to reduce the knowledge gap of circumpolar ship traffic in the Arctic. With changes in the Arctic sea ice extent and projected changes and increase in shipping in the Arctic, the ASTD System will allow the Arctic Council to be at the forefront of monitoring trends and assessing any changes for use in its studies, assessments, analyses, and the development of recommendations that enhance Arctic marine safety and support protection of Arctic people and the environment.

pdf Progress report on the Ecosystem Approach to Management Expert Group 2017-2019 work plan

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EA Progress Report 2017-2019.pdf

Progress report on the Ecosystem Approach to Management Expert Group 2017-2019 work plan
PAME established an expert group on the Ecosystem Approach to Management (the EA-EG) in 2007. This was broadened in 2011 to become a PAME-led joint expert group with participation also of other Arctic Council working groups (AMAP, CAFF and SDWG).

Norway and USA are co-lead countries for the theme ‘Ecosystem Approach to management’ (EA) under PAME. The EA-EG has held 6 workshops and one conference on various aspects of the Ecosystem Approach to management (EA) in the Arctic between 2011 and 2016. Progress reports on the work have been prepared regularly.

The group prepared a progress report for the 2015-2017 work plan period, and a report on ‘Status of implementation of the Ecosystem Approach to management in the Arctic’, by the end of the U.S. chairmanship in spring 2017. The various reports prepared by the EA-EG as referred to above are available at the PAME webpage under the Ecosystem Approach topic.

We report here on the progress of EA work during the 2017-2019 work plan.

pdf Regional Reception Facilities: Proposal for a new output to amend MARPOL to allow the establishment of regional arrangements in the Arctic

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Regional_Reception_Facilities_plan_and_draft_submission_for_IMO.pdf

Regional Reception Facilities: Proposal for a new output to amend MARPOL to allow the establishment of regional arrangements in the Arctic
This paper summarizes the work of PAME’s Regional Reception Facilities Experts Group (RRFGEG), on the development of the concept of regional arrangements for MARPOL reception facilities (RRF) to address challenges for Arctic shipping and at Arctic ports. This paper includes proposals for the development of regional ship’s waste management strategies with the goal of 100% compliance with IMO’s MARPOL Convention and Polar Code Amendments to MARPOL. The Polar Code entered into force in January 2017 and IMO Contracting States (including all Arctic States) must comply with provisions agreed to in the Polar Code amendments to MARPOL and all other MARPOL provisions as they apply to ships and port States. Ships operating in polar waters, including ships based in the Arctic and nearGArctic as well as ships transiting Arctic waters (e.g., Northern Sea Route and Northwest Passage), will face unique challenges.

While Polar Code Amendments to MARPOL will challenge shipboard waste management due to discharge restrictions of operational waste in Arctic waters, all port States, including Arctic port States, under existing provisions in the MARPOL Annexes, must ensure the provision of adequate port reception facilities (PRF) for shipGgenerated waste. In order to meet this challenge PAME RRFGEG members agreed that one approach to addressing PRF requirements in MARPOL for Arctic ports would be to consider the concept of regional agreements for waste management and reception of MARPOL wastes at ports in Arctic and near Arctic areas. Regional waste management strategies may help solve some of the challenges unique to Arctic shipping while meeting the spirit, if not the letter, of MARPOL in the Arctic. In 2014, PAME established a regional reception facilities expert group (RRFGEG). The RRFGEG presented their work plan and terms of reference at PAME (II) 2014 and the project was subsequently included in PAME’s Work Plan (2015G2017) as approved by the SAOs.

This paper is a final report of the RRFGEG on the project plan and terms of reference and includes a path forward, with approval of AC SAOs, for Arctic Council countries, through their IMO Delegations, to bring this work to the attention of IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) for consideration.
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