Folder Marine Litter Sources

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pdf Hess, N. A., et al. (1999). "Benthic marine debris, with an emphasis on fishery-related items, surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994–1996." Marine Pollution Bulletin 38(10): 885-890.

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Hess-1999-Benthic Marine Debris, with an Empha.pdf

Hess, N. A., et al. (1999). "Benthic marine debris, with an emphasis on fishery-related items, surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994–1996." Marine Pollution Bulletin 38(10): 885-890.
Composition and abundance of benthic marine debris were investigated during three bottom trawl surveys in inlet and offshore locations surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994–1996. Debris items were primarily plastic and metal regardless of trawl location. Plastic bait jars, fishing line, and crab pots were the most common fishery-related debris items and were encountered in large amounts in inlets (20–25 items km−2), but were less abundant outside of inlets (4.5–11 items km−2). Overall density of debris was also significantly greater in inlets than outside of inlets. Plastic debris densities in inlets ranged 22–31.5 items km−2, 7.8–18.8 items km−2 outside of inlets. Trawls in inlets contained almost as much metal debris as plastic debris. Density of metal debris ranged from 21.2 to 23.7 items km−2 in inlets, a maximum of 2.7 items km−2 outside of inlets. Inlets around the town of Kodiak had the highest densities of fishery-related and total benthic debris. Differences in benthic debris density between inlets and outside of inlets and differences by area may be due to differences in fishing activity and water circulation patterns. At the current reduced levels of fishing activity, however, yearly monitoring of benthic debris appears unnecessary.

pdf Merrell, T. R. (1984). "A decade of change in nets and plastic litter from fisheries off Alaska." Marine Pollution Bulletin 15(10): 378-384.

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Merrell-1984-A decade of change in nets and pl.pdf

Merrell, T. R. (1984). "A decade of change in nets and plastic litter from fisheries off Alaska." Marine Pollution Bulletin 15(10): 378-384.
Ten 1 km beaches on Amchitka Island, Alaska, were surveyed once annually in 1972–1974 and in 1982 to determine weights and numbers of fish-net fragments and other plastic litter items. Most litter was from Japanese and Soviet fishing vessels. Litter rapidly increased during 1972–74 (from 122 to 345 kg km−1 of beach) but decreased 26% by 1982 to 255 kg km−1. There was a 37% reduction in weight of trawl web on Amchitka beaches, and the number of gill-net floats declined 47%. The decrease in litter between 1974 and 1982, attributed to fewer trawlers and gill-netters fishing off Alaska, shows that marine litter could be rapidly reduced if disposal of litter at sea were restricted.