American Bureau of Shipping (ABS)Hyperlink: Eagle.org
ABS is a leading international classification organization devoted to promoting the security of life and property and preserving the natural environment through the development and verification of standards for the design, construction and operational maintenance of marine and offshore assets.
ABS participated in SARex with the Norwegian Coast Guard Polar SAR exercise. An ABS employee joined in the exercise and the outcomes of the experiments enable ABS to better help ship operators understand the hazards of Polar Water Operations and the difficulties meeting even the 5 day minimum survival time. A Report for the exercise details many of the vantage points of the exercise. This exercise reinforced the industry’s understanding that in order to survive in Polar Waters the survivors must be kept dry. Life zapping moisture can originate from condensation on the inside walls of lifeboats, sea spray, or survivors being immersed in waters during an abandonment. Through ABS Advisory Services and the ABS facilitated Operational Assessment these types of hazards and their risk control measures are closely examined. Link to Research Saving Lives in Arctic Seas.
A significant aspect of the Polar Code that can be easily overlooked is the availability of Search And Rescue (SAR) as it relates to the Maximum Expected Time of Rescue (METR). The Polar Code defines a minimum of 5 days and this is often blindly taken. ABS encourages operators to:
- research the availability and capability of SAR in the area of operation, consideration for downtime for maintenance/repair, refueling, SAR personnel work/rest cycle, etc …
- consider an abandonment in the worst possible location along the intended route
- consider how possible bad weather could hinder SAR
- determine a realistic maximum expected time to rescue everyone onboard the vessel
ABS also has considerable expertise with applying the Polar Code. Using these expertise ABS has helped ship operators plan well ahead, and estimate requirements for preparing for polar operations. One such example is a ship’s EPIRB. Most ships have a single EPIRB, certified to Resolution A.810(10), amended by MSC.56(66) and resolution MSC.120(74). These A.810(10) certified EPIRBS have a battery life performance requirement of at least 48 hours. This does not meet the Polar Code minimum expected time of rescue of 5 days. Therefore a measure is required, often the addition of EPIRB(s) or additional batteries and an associated procedure in the PWOM.
DNV GLHyperlink: IMO Polar Code
Follow this link for DNV GL’s guide to the Polar Code Document ‘Maritime Polar Code: Understand the Code’s requirements to take the right steps for smooth compliance’. For Chapter 8, see page 23.
International Maritime Organization (IMO)Interim guidelines on life-saving appliances and arrangements for ships operating in polar waters.
- Note IMO Circular 26 June 2019 (MSC.1/Circ.1614)
Hyperlink: IMO in the polar environment: Search and Rescue
The following video which is part of a series on IMO in the polar environment, focuses on search and rescue in polar regions and takes a closer look at the challenges of search and rescue operations in these inhospitable polar regions.
Lloyd's Register (LR)Hyperlink 1: The Polar Code by Lloyds
Lloyd's provides information and assistance for users to comply with the Polar Code. Lloyd's interactive toolkit allows users to work through the Code on their own terms and download Lloyd's register free guidance, templates and examples to help understand and meet compliance needs.
Hyperlink 2: Lloyd's Polar Code Resources
Lloyd's also provides guidance documents on; the Operational Assessment, setting operational limitations (limitation wording), determining the Operating Envelope and LR’s How to use POLARIS.
Hyperlink 3: The Polar Code: A Regulatory Interpretation Guide
This document provides Lloyd's Register guidance on all aspects of the Polar Code (chapter by chapter). For Chapter 8, see LR Regulatory Guide pages 47 to 52. See also LR guidance document on the Operational Assessment.
Lloyd's Register website.
Maritime Department, Norwegian Ministry of Trade, Industry and FisheriesThe Norwegian Ministry of Trade, Industry and Fisheries draws attention in the following links to the Reports by the University of Stavanger in relation to Search and Rescue Exercises carried out in 2016 and 2017 in ice-infested waters to identify and explore the gaps between the functionality provided by the existing SOLAS (International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea) approved safety equipment and the functionality required by the Polar Code.
Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF)Hyperlink 1: Northern Sea Route – Best practices and Challenges (2017)
For Chapter 8, see pages 3, 4, 13 and 15-18.
Hyperlink 2: Offshore Vessel Operations In Ice and or Severe Sub Zero Temperatures in Artic and Sub Artic regions (2014).
The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance to operators and charterers of offshore support vessels employed for use in areas impacted by ice or severe sub-zero temperatures with the aim of encouraging high standards of safety and environmental protection for those operating in Arctic and Sub-Arctic regions.
World Meterological OrganizationHyperlink 1: http://weather.gmdss.org
The Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) website displays the marine forecast and warning products that are provided to mariners via SafetyNet and NAVTEX, as part of the Worldwide Met-Ocean Information and Warning Service (WWMIWS), within the framework of the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS). The worlds' oceans have been divided into 21 areas, called METAREA's, for the provision of marine products to shipping. The products displayed are issued by the National Meteorological Services (NMS) appointed as WWMIWS Issuing Services. METAREA Coordinators are assigned to coordinate provision of the marine services for each area. Canada, Norway, Russian Federation have responsibilities in the respective METAREAs in the Arctic polar waters.
Hyperlink 2: https://library.wmo.int/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=12793#.X7aDi2j0n4Q
The WMO No. 485 Manual on the Global Data-processing and Forecasting System is designed to facilitate cooperation in data-processing and forecasting among Members; to specify obligations of Members in the implementation of the World Weather Watch (WWW) Global Data Processing and Forecasting System (GDPFS); and to ensure adequate uniformity and standardization in the practices and procedures employed in achieving these. Some Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres (RSMC) are defined to cope with Marine Environmental Emergency Response (MEER) and Search and Rescue (SAR) Operations.
CHAPTER 8 – LIFE-SAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS: Full Polar Code text
As adopted from IMO - Full Polar Code text
CHAPTER 8 - LIFE-SAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS
The goal of this chapter is to provide for safe escape, evacuation and survival.
8.2 Functional requirements
In order to achieve the goal set out in paragraph 8.1 above, the following functional requirements are embodied in the regulations of this chapter:
- 184.108.40.206 Exposed escape routes shall remain accessible and safe, taking into consideration the potential icing of structures and snow accumulation.
- 220.127.116.11 Survival craft and muster and embarkation arrangements shall provide safe abandonment of ship, taking into consideration the possible adverse environmental conditions during an emergency.
All life-saving appliances and associated equipment shall provide safe evacuation and be functional under the possible adverse environmental conditions during the maximum expected time of rescue.
- 18.104.22.168 Adequate thermal protection shall be provided for all persons on board, taking into account the intended voyage, the anticipated weather conditions (cold and wind), and the potential for immersion in polar water, where applicable.
- 22.214.171.124 Life-saving appliances and associated equipment shall take account of the potential of operation in long periods of darkness, taking into consideration the intended voyage.
- 126.96.36.199 Taking into account the presence of any hazards, as identified in the assessment in chapter 1, resources shall be provided to support survival following abandoning ship, whether to the water, to ice or to land, for the maximum expected time of rescue. These resources shall provide:
- .1 a habitable environment;
- .2 protection of persons from the effects of cold, wind and sun;
- .3 space to accommodate persons equipped with thermal protection adequate for the environment;
- .4 means to provide sustenance;
- .5 safe access and exit points; and
- .6 means to communicate with rescue assets.
In order to comply with the functional requirements of paragraphs 188.8.131.52 and 184.108.40.206 above, the following apply:
- .1 for ships exposed to ice accretion, means shall be provided to remove or prevent ice and snow accretion from escape routes, muster stations, embarkation areas, survival craft, its launching appliances and access to survival craft;
- .2 in addition, for ships constructed on or after 1 January 2017, exposed escape routes shall be arranged so as not to hinder passage by persons wearing suitable polar clothing; and
- .3 in addition, for ships intended to operate in low air temperatures, adequacy of embarkation arrangements shall be assessed, having full regard to any effect of persons wearing additional polar clothing.
In order to comply with the functional requirement of paragraph 8.2.2 above, the following apply:
- .1 ships shall have means to ensure safe evacuation of persons, including safe deployment of survival equipment, when operating in ice-covered waters, or directly onto the ice, as applicable; and
- .2 where the regulations of this chapter are achieved by means of adding devices requiring a source of power, this source shall be able to operate independently of the ship's main source of power.
220.127.116.11 In order to comply with the functional requirement of paragraph 18.104.22.168 above, the following apply:
- .1 for passenger ships, a proper sized immersion suit or a thermal protective aid shall be provided for each person on board; and
- .2 where immersion suits are required, they shall be of the insulated type.
22.214.171.124 In order to comply with the functional requirement of paragraph 126.96.36.199 above, the following apply:
- .1 no lifeboat shall be of any type other than partially or totally enclosed type;
- .2 taking into account the assessment referred to in chapter 1, appropriate survival resources, which address both individual (personal survival equipment) and shared (group survival equipment) needs, shall be provided, as follows:
- .1 life-saving appliances and group survival equipment that provide effective protection against direct wind chill for all persons on board;
- .2 personal survival equipment in combination with life-saving appliances or group survival equipment that provide sufficient thermal insulation to maintain the core temperature of persons; and
- .3 personal survival equipment that provide sufficient protection to prevent frostbite of all extremities; and
- .3 in addition, whenever the assessment required under paragraph 1.5 identifies a potential of abandonment onto ice or land, the following apply:
- .1 group survival equipment shall be carried, unless an equivalent level of functionality for survival is provided by the ship's normal life-saving appliances;
- .2 when required, personal and group survival equipment sufficient for 110% of the persons on board shall be stowed in easily accessible locations, as close as practical to the muster or embarkation stations;
- .3 containers for group survival equipment shall be designed to be easily movable over the ice and be floatable;
- .4 whenever the assessment identifies the need to carry personal and group survival equipment, means shall be identified of ensuring that this equipment is accessible following abandonment;
- .5 if carried in addition to persons, in the survival craft, the survival craft and launching appliances shall have sufficient capacity to accommodate the additional equipment;
- .6 passengers shall be instructed in the use of the personal survival equipment and the action to take in an emergency; and
- .7 the crew shall be trained in the use of the personal survival equipment and group survival equipment.
POLAR CODE CHAPTERS: EXPLANATION AND SUBMISSIONS
Part IA - Safety MeasuresChapter 1: General
Chapter 2: Polar Water Operation Manual
Chapter 3: Ship structure
Chapter 4: Subdivision and stability
Chapter 5: Watertight and weathertight integrity
Chapter 6: Machinery installations
Chapter 7: Fire safety/Protection
Chapter 8: Life saving appliances and arrangements
Chapter 9: Safety of navigation
Chapter 10: Communication
Chapter 11: Voyage planning
Chapter 12: Manning and training
Polar Code Part IIA: Pollution Prevention Measures
- Chapter 1: Prevention of Pollution by Oil
- Chapter 2: Control of pollution by noxious liquid substances in bulk
- Chapter 4: Prevention of pollution by sewage from ships
- Chapter 5: Prevention of pollution by garbage from ships