Folder Desktop Study on Marine Litter, Including Microplastics, in the Arctic

Desktop_Study_on_Marine_Litter.jpgThis is a collection of submissions on marine litter literature of relevance to the Arctic based on a dedicated submission form sent out to Arctic Council members and experts in Fall 2017. This was in support of the development of the  Desktop Study on Marine Litter, including Microplastics in the Arctic (May 2019) with the aim to:
  1. Evaluate the scope of marine litter in the Arctic and its effects on the Arctic marine environment;
  2. Enhance knowledge and awareness of marine litter in the Arctic;
  3. Enhance cooperation by the eight Arctic States to reduce negative impacts of marine litter on the Arctic marine environment; and
  4. Contribute to the prevention and/or reduction of marine litter pollution in the Arctic and its impact on marine organisms, habitats, public health and safety, and to reduce the socioeconomic costs litter causes.

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Tagged in: Macroplastics

Showing documents tagged with Macroplastics. Show all

pdf Pham, C. K., et al. (2014). "Marine litter distribution and density in European seas, from the shelves to deep basins." PloS one 9(4): e95839. Popular

Tagged in Macroplastics 203 downloads

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Pham-2014-Marine litter distribution and densi.pdf

Pham, C. K., et al. (2014). "Marine litter distribution and density in European seas, from the shelves to deep basins." PloS one 9(4): e95839.
Anthropogenic litter is present in all marine habitats, from beaches to the most remote points in the oceans. On the seafloor, marine litter, particularly plastic, can accumulate in high densities with deleterious consequences for its inhabitants. Yet, because of the high cost involved with sampling the seafloor, no large-scale assessment of distribution patterns was available to date. Here, we present data on litter distribution and density collected during 588 video and trawl surveys across 32 sites in European waters. We found litter to be present in the deepest areas and at locations as remote from land as the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The highest litter density occurs in submarine canyons, whilst the lowest density can be found on continental shelves and on ocean ridges. Plastic was the most prevalent litter item found on the seafloor. Litter from fishing activities (derelict fishing lines and nets) was particularly common on seamounts, banks, mounds and ocean ridges. Our results highlight the extent of the problem and the need for action to prevent increasing accumulation of litter in marine environments.

pdf Polasek, L., et al. (2017). "Marine debris in five national parks in Alaska." Marine Pollution Bulletin 117(1): 371-379. Popular

Tagged in Macroplastics 197 downloads

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Polasek-2017-Marine debris in five national pa.pdf

Polasek, L., et al. (2017). "Marine debris in five national parks in Alaska." Marine Pollution Bulletin 117(1): 371-379.

Marine debris is a management issue with ecological and recreational impacts for agencies, especially on remote beaches not accessible by road. This project was implemented to remove and document marine debris from five coastal National Park Service units in Alaska. Approximately 80 km of coastline were cleaned with over 10,000 kg of debris collected. Marine debris was found at all 28 beaches surveyed. Hard plastics were found on every beach and foam was found at every beach except one. Rope/netting was the next most commonly found category, present at 23 beaches. Overall, plastic contributed to 60% of the total weight of debris. Rope/netting (14.6%) was a greater proportion of the weight from all beaches than foam (13.3%). Non-ferrous metal contributed the smallest amount of debris by weight (1.7%). The work forms a reference condition dataset of debris surveyed in the Western Arctic and the Gulf of Alaska within one season.

pdf Stelfox, M., et al. (2016). "A review of ghost gear entanglement amongst marine mammals, reptiles and elasmobranchs." Marine Pollution Bulletin 111(1-2): 6-17. Popular

Tagged in Macroplastics 374 downloads

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Stelfox-2016-A review of ghost gear entangleme.pdf

Stelfox, M., et al. (2016). "A review of ghost gear entanglement amongst marine mammals, reptiles and elasmobranchs." Marine Pollution Bulletin 111(1-2): 6-17.
This review focuses on the effect that ghost gear entanglement has on marine megafauna, namely mammals, reptiles and elasmobranchs. A total of 76 publications and other sources of grey literature were assessed, and these highlighted that over 5400 individuals from 40 different species were recorded as entangled in, or associated with, ghost gear. Interestingly, there appeared to be a deficit of research in the Indian, Southern, and Arctic Oceans; and so, we recommend that future studies focus efforts on these areas. Furthermore, studies assessing the effects of ghost gear on elasmobranchs, manatees, and dugongs should also be prioritised, as these groups were underrepresented in the current literature. The development of regional databases, capable of recording entanglement incidences following a minimum global set of criteria, would be a logical next step in order to analyse the effect that ghost gear has on megafauna populations worldwide.
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