Folder Desktop Study on Marine Litter, Including Microplastics, in the Arctic

Desktop_Study_on_Marine_Litter.jpgThis is a collection of submissions on marine litter literature of relevance to the Arctic based on a dedicated submission form sent out to Arctic Council members and experts in Fall 2017. This was in support of the development of the  Desktop Study on Marine Litter, including Microplastics in the Arctic (May 2019) with the aim to:
  1. Evaluate the scope of marine litter in the Arctic and its effects on the Arctic marine environment;
  2. Enhance knowledge and awareness of marine litter in the Arctic;
  3. Enhance cooperation by the eight Arctic States to reduce negative impacts of marine litter on the Arctic marine environment; and
  4. Contribute to the prevention and/or reduction of marine litter pollution in the Arctic and its impact on marine organisms, habitats, public health and safety, and to reduce the socioeconomic costs litter causes.

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Tagged in: Macroplastics

Showing documents tagged with Macroplastics. Show all

pdf Ardea Miljö (2001). Marine litter: Trash that kills, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.

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Miljö-2001-Marine Litter - Trash that Kills.pdf

Ardea Miljö (2001). Marine litter: Trash that kills, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.
Marine litter (marine debris) has become an increasingly serious environmental, economic, health and aesthetic problem around the world.
Marine litter items travel widely, over long distances, with ocean currents and winds, around sea areas and between oceas. It is found not only in waters, on the seabed or on the beaches of densily populated regions, but also in remote places far away from any obvious sources.
Marine litter is long-lived and active for decades, directly and indirectly. It consists to a very great extent of plastics, and of metal and glass - material that do not beark down easily or quickly.
Marine litter is a vicious killer of marine mammals, seabirds and many other life forms in the marine and coastal environment . It also entails subsantial economic costs and losses to, e.g. fishermen, boat owners in general, coastal communities, farmers, power stations and individuals.

pdf Barnes, D. and P. Milner (2005). "Drifting plastic and its consequences for sessile organism dispersal in the Atlantic Ocean." Marine Biology 146(4): 815-825.

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Barnes-2005-Drifting plastic and its consequen.pdf

Barnes, D. and P. Milner (2005). "Drifting plastic and its consequences for sessile organism dispersal in the Atlantic Ocean." Marine Biology 146(4): 815-825.
Organisms have travelled the Atlantic Ocean as neuston and have rafted on natural marine debris for millions of years. Shipping increased opportunities for marine organism travel mere thousands of years ago but in just decades floating plastic debris is transforming marine rafting. Here we present a combined open-ocean and remote coasts marine debris survey of the Atlantic (from 68°S–78°N). Daily shipboard observations were made from the Southern Ocean to the high Arctic and the shores of 16 remote islands were surveyed. We report (1) anthropogenic debris from the most northerly and southerly latitudes to date, (2) the first record of marine biota colonising debris at latitudes >68°, and (3) the finding of exotic species (the barnacle Elminius modestus) on northern plastic debris. Plastic pieces dominated both open-ocean and stranding marine debris. The highest densities of oceanic debris were found around northwest Europe, whereas the highest stranding levels were equatorial. Our findings of high east-Arctic debris colonisation by fauna contrast with low values from west Arctic (though only two samples) and south Atlantic shores. Colonisation rates of debris differed between hemispheres, previously considered to be similar. Our two South Atlantic mega-debris shipboard surveys (10 years apart) found no changes in open-ocean debris densities but resurvey of a UK and an Arctic island both found increases. We put our findings in the context of the Atlantic literature to interpret spatial and temporal trends in marine debris accumulation and its organismal consequences.

pdf Barnes, D. K. (2002). "Biodiversity: invasions by marine life on plastic debris." Nature 416(6883): 808-809.

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Barnes-2002-Invasions by marine life on plasti.pdf

Barnes, D. K. (2002). "Biodiversity: invasions by marine life on plastic debris." Nature 416(6883): 808-809.
Colonization by alien species poses one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity1. Here I investigate the colonization by marine organisms of drift debris deposited on the shores of 30 remote islands from the Arctic to the Antarctic (across all oceans) and find that human litter more than doubles the rafting opportunities for biota, particularly at high latitudes. Although the poles may be protected from invasion by freezing sea surface temperatures, these may be under threat as the fastest-warming areas anywhere2 are at these latitudes.

pdf Bergmann, M. and M. Klages (2012). "Increase of litter at the Arctic deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN." Marine Pollution Bulletin 64(12): 2734-2741.

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Bergmann-2012-Increase of litter at the Arctic.pdf

Bergmann, M. and M. Klages (2012). "Increase of litter at the Arctic deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN." Marine Pollution Bulletin 64(12): 2734-2741.
Although recent research has shown that marine litter has made it even to the remotest parts of our planet, little information is available about temporal trends on the deep ocean floor. To quantify litter on the deep seafloor over time, we analysed images from the HAUSGARTEN observatory (79°N) taken in 2002, 2004, 2007, 2008 and 2011 (2500 m depth). Our results indicate that litter increased from 3635 to 7710 items km−2 between 2002 and 2011 and reached densities similar to those reported from a canyon near the Portuguese capital Lisboa. Plastic constituted the majority of litter (59%) followed by a black fabric (11%) and cardboard/paper (7%). Sixty-seven percent of the litter was entangled or colonised by invertebrates such as sponges (41%) or sea anemones (15%). The changes in litter could be an indirect consequence of the receding sea ice, which opens the Arctic Ocean to the impacts of man’s activities.

pdf Bergmann, M., et al. (2016). "Observations of floating anthropogenic litter in the Barents Sea and Fram Strait, Arctic." Polar Biology 39(3): 553-560.

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Bergmann-2016-Observations of floating anthrop.pdf

Bergmann, M., et al. (2016). "Observations of floating anthropogenic litter in the Barents Sea and Fram Strait, Arctic." Polar Biology 39(3): 553-560.
Although recent reports indicate that anthropogenic waste has made it to the remotest parts of our oceans, there is still only limited information about its spread, especially in polar seas. Here, we present litter densities recorded during ship- and helicopter-based observer surveys in the Barents Sea and Fram Strait (Arctic). Thirty-one items were recorded in total, 23 from helicopter and eight from research vessel transects. Litter quantities ranged between 0 and 0.216 items km−1 with a mean of 0.001 (±SEM 0.005) items km−1. All of the floating objects observed were plastic items. Litter densities were slightly higher in the Fram Strait (0.006 items km−1) compared with the Barents Sea (0.004 items km−1). More litter was recorded during helicopter-based surveys than during ship-based surveys (0.006 and 0.004 items km−1, respectively). When comparing with the few available data with the same unit (items km−1 transect), the densities found herein are slightly higher than those from Antarctica but substantially lower than those from temperate waters. However, since anthropogenic activities in the Fram Strait are expanding because of sea ice shrinkage, and since currents from the North Atlantic carry a continuous supply of litter to the north, this problem is likely to worsen in years to come unless serious mitigating actions are taken to reduce the amounts of litter entering the oceans.

pdf Buhl-Mortensen, L. and P. Buhl-Mortensen (2017). Marine litter in the Nordic Seas: Distribution composition and abundance. Mar Pollut Bull, 125(1-2): 260-270

Tagged in Macroplastics, MarineLitterGeneralUndefined 30 downloads

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Buhl-Mortensen-2017-Marine litter in the Nordi.pdf

Buhl-Mortensen, L. and P. Buhl-Mortensen (2017). Marine litter in the Nordic Seas: Distribution composition and abundance. Mar Pollut Bull, 125(1-2): 260-270

Litter has been found in all marine environments and is accumulating in seabirds and mammals in the Nordic Seas. These ecosystems are under pressure from climatic change and fisheries while the human population is small. The marine landscapes in the area range from shallow fishing banks to deep-sea canyons. We present density, distribution and composition of litter from the first large-scale mapping of sea bed litter in arctic and subarctic waters. Litter was registered from 1778 video transects, of which 27% contained litter. The background density of litter in the Barents Sea and Norwegian Sea is 202 and 279 items/km2 respectively, and highest densities were found close to coast and in canyons. Most of the litter originated from the fishing industry and plastic was the second most common litter. Background levels were comparable to European records and areas with most littering had higher densities than in Europe.

pdf Day, R. H. and D. G. Shaw (1987). "Patterns in the abundance of pelagic plastic and tar in the North Pacific Ocean, 1976–1985." Marine Pollution Bulletin 18(6): 311-316.

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Day-1987-Patterns in the abundance of pelagic.pdf

Day, R. H. and D. G. Shaw (1987). "Patterns in the abundance of pelagic plastic and tar in the North Pacific Ocean, 1976–1985." Marine Pollution Bulletin 18(6): 311-316.
We determined the distribution and abundance of pelagic plastic and tar in the subtropical and subarctic North Pacific and the Bering Sea in June–August 1985 and compared them with similar observations from the same areas in 1976 and 1984. Large (aproximately 2.5 cm diameter or larger) plastic objects were counted from the deck of a ship, and small plastic objects and tarballs were caught with a neuston net. Densities (number items m−2) of large plastic in subtropical waters averaged two times those in subarctic waters and eight times those in the Bering Sea. Concentrations (mg m−2) of small plastic in subtropical waters averaged 26 times those in subarctic waters and 400 times those in the Bering Sea. Concentrations of tar in subtropical waters averaged three times those in subarctic waters; no tar was found in the Bering Sea. Densities of large plastic along 155°W in the Subarctic North Pacific were not significantly different between 1984 and 1985. Concentrations of small plastic increased significantly between 1976 (along 158°W) and 1985 (along 155°W), probably because of escapement into and subsequent accumulation in the oceans. Concentrations of tar decreased, although not significantly, between 1976 and 1985, possibly because of decreased dumping of petroleum compounds at sea. Densities of large plastic were strongly correlated with both densities and concentrations of small plastic, but neither densities nor concentrations of large or small plastic were correlated with densities or concentrations of tar.

pdf Feder, H. M., et al. (1978). "Man-made debris on the Bering Sea floor." Marine Pollution Bulletin 9(2): 52-53.

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Feder-1978-Man-made debris on the Bering Sea f.pdf

Feder, H. M., et al. (1978). "Man-made debris on the Bering Sea floor." Marine Pollution Bulletin 9(2): 52-53.
Proposed oil development in the Bering Sea has led to intensive biological assessment surveys there. A benthic trawl, used to collect bottom invertebrates and fishes in these surveys also brings up any man-made debris in its path. A description of this debris, its distribution, and frequency of occurrence are given for the southeastern Bering Sea in 1975 and 1976.

pdf Fowler, C. W. (1987). "Marine debris and northern fur seals: a case study." Marine Pollution Bulletin 18(6): 326-335.

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Fowler-1987-Marine debris and northern fur sea.pdf

Fowler, C. W. (1987). "Marine debris and northern fur seals: a case study." Marine Pollution Bulletin 18(6): 326-335.
Since the early 1930s small numbers of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) have been observed with various objects caught around their necks, shoulders and, less frequently, their flippers. The incidence of such entanglement increased following the mid-1960s when fishing effort in the North Pacific and Bering Sea increased and when plastic materials began to be used extensively in making trawl netting and packing bands. The current incidence of entanglement observed among subadult males on St. Paul Island (of the Pribilof Islands) is about 0.4%, a level at least two orders of magnitude greater than observed in the 1940s. Almost all entangling materials observed on subadult males ashore weigh less than 0.4 kg and are predominantly fragments of trawl netting and plastic packing bands. Most of the trawl netting debris found at sea or on beaches in the Bering Sea area consists of fragments larger than those found on the seals that return to the Pribilof Islands. During pelagic surveys, trawl netting debris is sighted at the rate of 0.2–3.1 fragments per 1,000 km. Between 10 and 17% of these fragments have been observed to contain entangled seals. Seals appear to become entangled after approaching and investigating debris. Entanglement involves both sexes and appears predominantly to involve young animals, which are occasionally observed entangled as groups in large debris. Entanglement in debris results in increased energy expenditures, especially while dragging large fragments of net at sea. Compared to non-entangled seals, entangled seals spend more time at sea, whether foraging, travelling, or both. Changes in pup numbers born and unexpected mortality in the first several years of life exhibit a relationship with entanglement to provide a correlative explanation for recent population dynamics. These factors collectively suggest that mortality of fur seals due to entanglement in marine debris contributes significantly to declining trends of the population on the Pribilof Islands.

pdf Fowler, C. W., et al. (1990). Studies of the population level effects of entanglement on Northen Fur Seals. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS SWFC, 154.

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Fowler-1990-Studies of the population level ef.PDF

Fowler, C. W., et al. (1990). Studies of the population level effects of entanglement on Northen Fur Seals. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS SWFC, 154.
Recent studies have focused on entanglement among the juvenile male northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus, as a means of evaluating the effects of entanglement at the population level. Most entanglement-related field studies were conducted on St. Paul Island, Alaska, in the 1980's but the analyses include relevant data from the late 1970's. Reported here are the results of recent studies on monitoring of entanglement, estimates of entanglement-caused mortality, and the effects entanglement may have on the chances an animal is observed on the breeding islands. 
The observed proportions of seals entangled in 1985 and 1986 were consistent with those observed during the last few years of the commercial harvest (about 0.4%). The proportion observed in 1988 was 0.29%, the lowest observed since 1970. The change reflects a drop in the numbers of animals entangled in fragments of trawl webbing. The frequency of occurrence of trawl webbing among the entangling debris was about half the former levels whereas the proportion of seals entangled in other types of debris did not change. 
These studies confirm earlier estimates indicating that, after 1 year, the survival of seals entangled in debris light enough to permit the animals to return once to land is about half of the survival of nonentangled seals. Data indicate that the main factor contributing to the success of entangled animals that do survive is escapement from the debris. 
Rates at which entangled animals are resighted indicate that the proportion of animals resighted drops with an increase in the size (weight) of debris. 
Data from radio-tagged seals confirm that entangled seals go to sea for longer periods of time than do controls.

pdf Johnson, S. W. (1990). Distribution, abundance, and source of entanglement debris and other plastics on Alaskan beaches, 1982-88. The Second International Conference on Marine Debris, Honolulu.

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Johnson-1990-Distribution, abundance, and sour.pdf

Johnson, S. W. (1990). Distribution, abundance, and source of entanglement debris and other plastics on Alaskan beaches, 1982-88. The Second International Conference on Marine Debris, Honolulu.

Sixty kilometers of outer coast beaches at 25 locations in Alaska were surveyed from 1982 to 1988 to determine distribution, composition, quantity, deposition, and source of plastic debris washed ashore. Approximately 67% of all plastic debris found was fishing gear (e.g., net fragments, rope, floats) and 3 3 % was packaging material (e.g., plastic bags, bottles). Debrisfoundwhichcouldentanglemarinemammals, seabirds, and fish included trawl web, rope, packing straps, and monofilament gillnet. Monofilament gillnet was not abundant (usually <5 pieces/km) on beaches, but trawl web was found on beaches throughout Alaska and exceeded 10 fragments/km at more than 50% of the locations sampled. Foreign fisheries were the source of most (98%) of the monofilament gillnet washed ashore; the source of trawl web is shifting from foreign to domestic fisheries. Trends in composition and abundance of plastic debris were monitored at three sites: Amchitka Island, Middleton Island, and Yakutat. Amchitka Island had similar quantities (-300 items/km) of total plastics in 1982 and 1987, although the amount of trawl web at this site continued to increase. Quantities of plastic debris on Middleton Island remained similar from 1984 to 1987 (average 860 items/km), with the exception of an approximate 3 3 % decline in 1985 from the 4-year average. Near Yakutat, the quantity of trawl web deposited ashore increased from 8.8 to 10.1 fragments/km/year from 1985 to 1988. Continuing the surveys of these benchmark beaches will help determine whether recent mitigating legislation is effective in reducing the disposal of entanglement debris and other plastics at sea.

pdf June, J. A. (1990). Type, source, and abundance of trawl-caught marine debris off Oregon, in the eastern Bering Sea, and in Norton Sound in 1988. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, NOAA Technical Memo NMFS-SWF-SC-154.

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June-1990-Type, source, and abundance of trawl.PDF

June, J. A. (1990). Type, source, and abundance of trawl-caught marine debris off Oregon, in the eastern Bering Sea, and in Norton Sound in 1988. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, NOAA Technical Memo NMFS-SWF-SC-154.

In 1988, National Marine Fisheries Service scientists collected information on type, source, and abundance of marine debris caught during annual bottom trawl surveys off Oregon, in the eastern Bering Sea, and in Norton Sound. Numbers of indi- vidual debris items caught were tallied by haul. When possible, the nationality of origin was determined. Animals entangled or associated with debris items were noted. Debris items were categorized by material (e.g., plastic, glass) and use (e.g., galley wastes, fishing equipment). Effort in square kilometers trawled was calculated for each haul from distance fished and average net width measurements. Average catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) in numbers of items per square kilometer was calculated for individual debris items, major categories, and total debris by area and for combined areas. 

Of the 696 hauls surveyed, 70 were off Oregon, 541 in the eastern Bering Sea, and 85 in Norton Sound. Marine debris was most abundant off Oregon, occurring in 70% of the hauls and averaging 149.6 items/km2. In the eastern Bering Sea, 23% of the hauls caught marine debris, for an average of 7.5 items/km2. Norton Sound had the least amount of debris. It occurred in 7% of the hauls and averaged 1.9 items/km2. Galley wastes dominated debris in Oregon (64% of the total CPUE) and in the eastern Bering Sea (40% of the total CPUE), followed by engineering/processing wastes. Fishing equipment debris was abundant in the eastern Bering Sea (1.86 items/km2) and off Oregon (1.69 items/km2), but was not found in Norton Sound. Plastic debris was found in all three areas, but was most abundant in the eastern Bering Sea. Debris of foreign origin accounted for 70% of the total CPUE of all debris found in the eastern Bering Sea; however, domestic debris dominated off Oregon (88% of the total CPUE) and in Norton Sound (100% of the total CPUE). 

pdf Kienitz, A.-T. (2013). Marine Debris in the Coastal Environment of Iceland ́s Nature Reserve, Hornstrandir - Sources, Consequences and Prevention Measures Master's Thesis, University of Akureyri.

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Kienitz-2013-Marine Debris in the Coastal Envi.pdf

Kienitz, A.-T. (2013). Marine Debris in the Coastal Environment of Iceland ́s Nature Reserve, Hornstrandir - Sources, Consequences and Prevention Measures Master's Thesis, University of Akureyri.

Marine debris is a growing problem, which adversely affects ecosystems and economies world-wide. Studies based on a standardized approach to examine the quantity of marine debris are lacking at many locations, including Iceland. In the present study, 26 transects were established on six different bays in the north, west and south of the nature reserve Hornstrandir in Iceland, following the standardized approach developed by the OSPAR Commission. Results showed that 95.4% of all debris items consisted of plastic. On average, 104 debris items were found in 100 x 10 m transects with an average weight of 10.4 kg. Based on those findings it was calculated that approximately 32,600 litter items, having a weight of approximately 4300 kg are polluting the north, south and west coasts of the nature reserve Hornstrandir. Indicator items were used to trace industrial origins of debris, identifying the fishing industry as the main contributor to the pollution. Labels and types of fishing gear found, indicated that the major proportion of marine debris was coming from Icelandic industries. Management recommendations are based on the analysis of effective management practices in other countries and the circumstances in Iceland. As a result, enforcement of the use of biodegradable fishing gear is seen as the best long-term solution. Additional measures like gear marking and deposit systems, improvement of port reception facilities, education and beach cleanups are also recommended.

pdf Manville, A. M. (1990). A survey of plastics on western Aleutian Island beaches and related wildlife entanglement. The Second International Conference on Marine Debris, Honolulu.

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Manville-1990-A survey of plastics on western.PDF

Manville, A. M. (1990). A survey of plastics on western Aleutian Island beaches and related wildlife entanglement. The Second International Conference on Marine Debris, Honolulu.

A 10-day survey of 25 beaches (mean length of beach surveys - 149 m (162 yd)) on seven different islands (Attu, Agattu, Shemya, Buldir, Kiska, Little Kiska, and Adak) in the outer Aleutian Islands was conducted 12-20Jyly 1988, using the U.S.Fish and Wildlife Service's research vessel MV Tiglaxasa base. Sites were randomly selected, and beaches were surveyed for all plastic from sea level to high storm tide level. Representative plastic samples were collected and all beaches photographed. Of the total 3.7 km (2.3 mi) of beach observed, 3,153 plastic objects were counted, representing 67 different finished plastic products. Debris was identified from Japan, the U.S.S.R., South Korea, People's Republic of China, Taiwan, Norway, and the United States. Most prevalent were items from Japan; of those that were identifiable, most were fishing related. A precipitous decline in the Steller's sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus, was noted on Attu Island (77% decrease since 1979), where pinniped surveys were conducted. The results coincide with a reported 65% overall reduction in the western Aleutian Islands population of Steller's sea lions over the past 10 years. Plastics are suspected of contributing to their decline. An adult bull sea lion on Buldir Island was photographed with a strapping band and massive entanglement scar around its neck, with reports of two other entangled, scarred, but live sea lions on Kiska Island, and one on Agattu Island. Some two dozen dead seabirds were discovered during the beach surveys wrapped in plastic although exact cause of death could be ascertained for only one. The Tiglax was temporarily entangled in rope from an apparently active brown king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus, pot.There was a statistically significant difference in the amount of plastic found on beaches in protected coves versus that discovered on open, unprotected beaches. There was also a statistically significant difference in fishing-related versus non-fishing-related plastics spotted on the beaches surveyed. If the amount of plastic located on these beaches is at all indicative of that found elsewhere on Alaska's 57,924 km (36,000mi) of shoreline,plastic debris poses a serious potential problem or fish and wildlife.

pdf Merrell, T. R. (1980). "Accumulation of plastic litter on beaches of Amchitka Island, Alaska." Marine environmental research 3(3): 171-184.

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Merrell-1980-Accumulation of plastic litter on.pdf

Merrell, T. R. (1980). "Accumulation of plastic litter on beaches of Amchitka Island, Alaska." Marine environmental research 3(3): 171-184.

Between 1972 and 1974 plastic marine litter on ten 1-km beaches at Amchitka Island increased from 2,221 to 5,367 items—a 2·4 x increase in a two-year period. Most litter originated from Japanese and Soviet fishing vessels, but some items were from the Asian coast, at least 1,150 km distant. In 1974 there were 345 kg of common items of plastic litter per kilometre of beach. In 1972, an estimated 1,664 metric tons of plastic litter was lost or dumped from fishing vessels in the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean. Stranded plastic litter persists indefinitely but rapidly becomes buried in beach material or is blown inland and covered with vegetation. The most serious environmental impact is probably entanglement of marine mammals and birds in some types of litter. The accelerating accumulation of litter could be reduced through unilateral action by countries that regulate coastal fishing privileges if these countries make litter control a condition for permission to fish.

pdf Merrell, T. R. (1984). "A decade of change in nets and plastic litter from fisheries off Alaska." Marine Pollution Bulletin 15(10): 378-384.

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Merrell-1984-A decade of change in nets and pl.pdf

Merrell, T. R. (1984). "A decade of change in nets and plastic litter from fisheries off Alaska." Marine Pollution Bulletin 15(10): 378-384.
Ten 1 km beaches on Amchitka Island, Alaska, were surveyed once annually in 1972–1974 and in 1982 to determine weights and numbers of fish-net fragments and other plastic litter items. Most litter was from Japanese and Soviet fishing vessels. Litter rapidly increased during 1972–74 (from 122 to 345 kg km−1 of beach) but decreased 26% by 1982 to 255 kg km−1. There was a 37% reduction in weight of trawl web on Amchitka beaches, and the number of gill-net floats declined 47%. The decrease in litter between 1974 and 1982, attributed to fewer trawlers and gill-netters fishing off Alaska, shows that marine litter could be rapidly reduced if disposal of litter at sea were restricted.

pdf NOAA (2015). NOAA Marine Debris Program Strategic Plan 2016-2020, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

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NOAA-2015-NOAA Marine Debris Program Strategic.pdf

NOAA (2015). NOAA Marine Debris Program Strategic Plan 2016-2020, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
No Abstract Available

pdf OSPAR (2010). Guideline for monitoring marine litter on the beaches in the OSPAR Maritime area - amendment 2014, OSPAR Agreement 2014-1.

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OSPAR Commissio-2010-Guideline for monitoring.pdf

OSPAR (2010). Guideline for monitoring marine litter on the beaches in the OSPAR Maritime area - amendment 2014, OSPAR Agreement 2014-1.

A guideline for monitoring marine litter on beaches has been developed by OSPAR as a tool to collect data on litter in the marine environment. This tool has been designed to generate data on marine litter according to a standardized methodology.